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fuel injection in the news

Zimbabwe: Fuel Frustrations Go Beyond Non-Supply - Oct 05 12:44 PM
THE ever-worsening fuel situation is simply compounding the string of problems motorists have faced in Zimbabwe over the last few years, not just in terms of supply but also in terms of quality. - VSPC Agreement With Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation Signed 
[Press Release] Market Wire via Yahoo! Finance - Oct 05 8:51 AM
VIASPACE Inc., a company dedicated to commercializing proven technologies from NASA and the US Department of Defense, announced today that its subsidiary, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation, has signed an amended cartridge design and certified manufacturer agreement with Elentec Co., Ltd. of Suwon-city in the Republic of Korea.

Korean Fuel Cell Cartridge Manufacturer Extends Agreement With Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation 
SYS-CON Media - Oct 04 5:39 PM
VIASPACE Inc. (BULLETIN BOARD: VSPC) , a company dedicated to commercializing proven technologies from NASA and the US Department of Defense, announced today that its subsidiary, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC), has signed an amended cartridge design and certified manufacturer agreement with Elentec Co., Ltd. of Suwon-city in the Republic of (South) Korea. Elentec is already a

A Lot More Firepower for BMW?s 6-Shooter 
New York Times - Oct 07 9:28 PM
For 2007, BMW has brought out new fifth-generation coupes, the BMW 328i and 335i, cheering enthusiasts who haven?t seen a new two-door 3 Series since 1999.

fuel injetion



- motec fuel injection

- fuel injection


  • 1 Objectives
  • 2 Benefits
  • 3 Regulatory motivation
  • 4 Basic fuelinjection function
  • 5 Type of fuel
  • 6 Detailed fuel injecton function
    • 6.1 Typical fuel injection EFI components
    • 6.2 Functional description
    • 6.3 Sample pulsewidth calculations
      • 6.3.1 Calculate motec fuel injection injector pulsewidth from airflow
      • 6.3.2 Calculate fuel injection systems fuel-flow rate from pulsewidth
  • 7 Various injection enderle fuel injection schemes
    • 7.1 Throttle body injection
    • 7.2 Continuous injection
    • 7.3 Central port injection mechanical fuel injection (CPI)
    • 7.4 Multi-point fuel injection
    • 7.5 Direct tpi fuel injection disassembly injection
  • 8 Evolution
    • 8.1 Pre-emission tpi fuel injection era
    • 8.2 Post emission era
  • 9 See also
  • 10 External tpi fuel injection bolt torque links

Fuel injection is a means of metering fuel into an tpi fuel injection ipb internal combustion engine. In modern 97 firebird fuel injection tpi automotive applications, the fuel metering task is only one of several functions performed by an engine management system.

For gasoline electronic fuel injection engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel prior to the widespread use of chevy tpi fuel injection electronic fuel injection (EFI). However, a wide fuel injection equipments variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.

One major distinction tpi fuel injection faq between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the mercedes 300d fuel injection pump fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small tpi fuel injection disassembley nozzle under high pressure, whereas a carburetor relies on the tpi fuel injection idle problems vacuum created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel aftermarket fuel injection to the airstream.

Another notable difference is that a carburetor performs diesel fuel injection several important functions in one single component: it measures engine load, calculates the amount victory vegas fuel injection problems of fuel needed, and adds the required fuel to the airstream. With fuel injection, these functions are bosch fuel injection pump performed by separate subsystems cis fuel injection and components. This means that each subsystem can be specialized and optimized for its particular role, which brings a number of important fuel injection conversion performance benefits compared to hilborn fuel injection the compromise solution offered by carburetors.

The carburetor modifications and complications needed kinsler fuel injection to comply with increasingly-strict exhaust emission regulations of the 1970s and 1980s gradually eroded and then reversed the tuned port fuel injection simplicity, cost and packaging advantages carburetors had custom fuel injection manifolds traditionally offered. Fuel injection appeared first on European-made cars in the late fuel injection pump 1960s and early '70s. It was phased in through the latter '70s hydrogen fuel injection and '80s at an accelerating rate, with the US alcohol fuel injection and Japanese markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth markets lagging somewhat, and since the early aviation diesel fuel injection pumps 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in First world markets like the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia ford fuel injection harnesses have come equipped motorcycle fuel injection with electronic fuel injection (EFI).


The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All 1996 to 2000 gm fuel injection problems share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, fuel injection troubleshooting but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are affordable fuel injection several competing objectives such as:

  • power output
  • fuel efficiency
  • emissions performance
  • ability to accommodate alternative diesel fuel injection pump fuels
  • durability
  • reliability
  • driveability and smooth operation
  • initial cost
  • maintenance cost
  • diagnostic capability
  • range of environmental operation

Certain combinations of these goals gm fuel injection are conflicting, and holley fuel injection it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. mercedes 109 fuel injection parts In practice, automotive engineers strive to best satisfy rance fuel injection a customer's needs in a competitive manner. The modern digital EFI system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives than bosch fuel injection a carburetor.


An engine's air/fuel bosch mechanical fuel injection ratio must be accurately controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance, troubleshooting jeep cherokee fuel injection emissions, driveability and fuel economy. Modern EFI systems meter fuel with great precision, and when aviation diesel fuel injection systems used in conjunction with diesel fuel injection petroleum pump an Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO sensor), they are also very accurate. ford fuel injection The advent of digital closed loop fuel control, based on feedback from an fuel injection problems EGO sensor, permit EFI to significantly outperform a carburetor. The two fundamental improvements are:

  1. Reduced response time to harley fuel injection rapidly changing inputs, e.g., rapid throttle movements.
  2. Deliver an accurate and 1986 mustang fuel injection equal mass of fuel to each cylinder of the engine, dramatically improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution bmw fuel injection problems of the engine.

These two features result in the fuel injection supply rails following performance benefits:

  • Exhaust Emissions
    • Significantly reduced "engine out" or "feedgas" emissions (the chemical products of engine gm sequential fuel injection combustion).
    • A reduction in the final tailpipe emissions (≈ 99.9%) resulting from the 440 mopar and fuel injection ability to accurately condition the "feedgas" in a manner that maximizes the effectiveness accel fuel injection of the catalytic converter.
  • General Engine Operation
    • Smoother function during quick throttle transitions.
    • Engine starting.
    • Extreme weather operation.
    • Reduced maintenance bmw fuel injection interval.
    • A slight increase in bosch diesel fuel injection pump fuel economy.
  • Power Output
    • Fuel injection often produces more power than fuel injection cleaner an equivalent carbureted engine. However, fuel injection alone does not increase maximum engine output. fuel injection pump system Increased airflow is necessary to permit oxidizing more fuel, which generates more heat, which in turn generates more fuel injection pump test bench output. The combustion process converts stanadyne fuel injection pump the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy, whether the fuel arrived via EFI or a carburetor is not significant. bosch diesel fuel injection Airflow is often improved with fuel injectors, which are much smaller fast fuel injection than a carburetor. Their smaller size permits more design freedom fuel injection cleaning to improve the air's path into the engine. In contrast, fuel injection system a carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger, it g m fuel injection must be carefully oriented with respect to gravity, and it must be honda fuel injection approximately equal distance from each of the engine's cylinders. megasquirt fuel injection These design constraints generally compromise airflow into the engine.
    • A carburetor relies on a rochester fuel injection drag inducing venturi in order to create a local air pressure difference, which forces the fuel into troubleshooting fuel injection problems the air stream. The flow loss caused by the venturi is small two cylinder fuel injection in comparison to other flow losses in the induction 1988 isuzu pickup fuel injection system diagnostics system. In a well-designed carbureted induction system, the venturi in and of itself best fuel injection cleaner is not a significant airflow restriction.
    • Fuel injection is more likely to increase efficiency than power. When cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution bosch l-jetronic fuel injection is improved (common with EFI), less fuel is required to generate the chevolet tahoe fuel injection service hilo hawaii same power output. Engine custom fuel injection parts efficiency is known as the BSFC, or brake specific fuel consumption. fuel injection electronic When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal (and it always is under fuel injection gas mileage help one condition or another, and worse on carburetor systems), more fuel than necessary is metered to the jeepmopar fuel injection rich cylinders in order to provide sufficient fuel to the lean cylinders. Power output is asymmetrical parts of fuel injection system with respect to air/fuel ratio. In other words, burning extra china diesel fuel injection pump testbench fuel in the rich cylinders does not corvette fuel injection reduce power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the diesel fuel injection pump testbench lean cylinders. The standard fuel metering compromise is to run the rich cylinders "even ex-cell-o fuel injection richer" of the optimal air/fuel ratio, fuel injection basics in order to provide enough fuel to the leaner cylinders. The net power output fuel injection cleaners improves with all the cylinders making maximum power. An analogy is that of painting a fuel injection kits wall. One coat of paint may not cover very well. The second coat injection bosch fuel injectors dramatically improves the appearance of the poorly covered areas, but motorcycle carburetor to fuel injection conversion some extra paint is consumed on areas that were already well covered.
    • Deviations from perfect air/fuel distribution, however subtle, motorcycle fuel injection types significantly impact emissions, by forfeiting 1995 chevy beretta fuel injection system combustion events at the chemically ideal, stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Grosser distribution problems eventually begin to negatively impact bench fuel injection pump test efficiency, and the grossest distribution issues finally affect power. The hierarchy diesel fuel injection pumps of negative functional impact with diesel fuel injection test bench regard to increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution is: emissions, efficiency, and power.

There are other benefits associated diy fuel injection with fuel injection, such as better atomization of early corvette fuel injection the fuel in the intake (constant-choke carburetors have poor atomization at low air speeds, necessitating modifications such electonic fuel injection as sequential twin-barrel designs) and better breathing due to the elimination of the carburetor's venturi.

Injection systems factory marine fuel injection ford have evolved significantly since the fuel injection for boats mid 1980s. Current EFI systems provide an accurate and cost effective method of metering fuel. The emission and fuel injection kit subjective performance characteristics have steadily improved with g m fuel injection purge the advent of modern digital controls, which is why EFI systems have replaced carburetors in the marketplace.

EFI is becoming harley davidson fuel injection system more reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At the same time, carburetors are injectors turbochargers fuel injection becoming less available, and more expensive. Even marine international harvester td6 fuel injection pump applications are adopting EFI as reliability improves. If this trend continues, it is conceivable jeep fuel injection that virtually all internal combustion engines, including garden equipment and snow throwers, will eventually mazda mpv fuel injection oregon fuel injection use EFI.

It should be noted that a carburetor's fuel metering system is sbc fuel injection systems a less expensive alternative when strict emission regulations are not a requirement, as is weber fuel injection the case in developing countries. EFI will undoubtedly replace carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission 1984 ford eec fuel injection regulations similar to Europe, 1993 chevy van fuel injection problems Japan and North America.

Regulatory motivation

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments conducted studies into the numerous sources of 1996 dodge ram fuel injection system 460 fuel injection air pollution. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air after market fuel injection pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, the bosch k-jetronic fuel injection primary source of emission regulations was legislated at closed loop fuel injection for harley davidsons the local level. The ineffective scope of local regulations was gradually superseded with more strategically comprehensive state and federal corvair fuel injection regulations. By 1967 cpi fuel injection the state of California (Governor Reagan), created the California Air Resources Board, and in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was diesel fuel injection pump test bench equipment formed. Both agencies now create electonic fuel injection for harley and enforce emission regulations for automobiles, as well as for many other sources.

Additionally, similar studies and regulations were simultaneously developed in ford electronic fuel injection Europe fuel injection cleaner bmw and Japan.

The primary source of internal combustion engine emissions is the incomplete combustion of a minuscule fraction of the total fuel consumed. This fuel injection diagnosis is due to having insufficient oxygen to fuel injection hose burn all the fuel. The unburned portion of fuel injection pump cummins diesel parts fuel is so small, the lost energy is trivial to fuel efficiency, holley stealth ram fuel injection and therefore commercially insignificant to the final customer. Auto manufacturers were eventually motivated by emission regulations to marine holley fuel injection address this issue.

The modern EFI system evolved to gain deliberate control of mazda tribute fuel injection the small fraction of unburned fuel. The ultimate combustion goal is to match each molecule(s) of mechanical stack fuel injection fuel with a corresponding molecule(s) of oxygen so that neither motor scooter fuel injection has any molecules remaining after combustion piezo fuel injection - (see stoichiometry). This is a gross oversimplification of complex combustion propane fuel injection chemistry that occurs in a difficult to manage environment. However, it accurately describes the magnitude of the valley fuel injection fuel metering task, as well as the vw fuel injection precision of a modern EFI system.

Basic function

The process of determining the amount of fuel, and its delivery into 1975 cadillac fuel injection the engine, are known as fuel american bosch cam driven fuel injection pump repair metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter bosch cis fuel injection fuel (non electronic, or mechanical fuel injection). Modern systems are nearly all electronic, and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to chevy fuel injection inject the fuel. An electronic engine control diagrams of fuel injection pumps for diesel unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject.

The fuel injector direct fuel injection acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly into the engine's air stream. drag racing fuel injection systems In almost all cases this requires an external pump. The pump edelbrock fuel injection and injector are only two of several components in a electric fuel pump fuel injection complete fuel injection system.

In contrast to an EFI system, a carburetor directs the induction air electronic fuel injection rail parts through a venturi, which generates a minute difference in air pressure. The minute air pressure differences both electronic fuel injection system emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel, and then acts ex cell o fuel injection as the force to push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle excello fuel injection aircraft into the induction air stream. As more air enters the engine, a fuel injection gas mileage greater pressure difference is generated, and more fuel is metered into the engine. A fuel injection parts carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering fuel injection tools system, and is cost competitive when compared to a complete EFI system.

An EFI system requires several peripheral components fuel injection water fuel stanley a. meyer in addition to the injector(s), in order to duplicate all hillborn fuel injection the functions of a carburetor. A point worth noting injection denso fuel injectors spark plugs during times of fuel metering repair is that EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. A mercruiser marine fuel injection engines single carburetor replacement can accomplish samurai fuel injection what might require numerous repair attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is malfunctioning. sequential electronic fuel injection 1999 ford ranger On the other hand, EFI systems require little regular maintenance; a carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or techlusion fuel injection altitude adjustments.

Type of fuel

The calibration, and often trouble shooting ford fuel injection the design, of a fuel 1957 fuel injection injection system differs depending on the type of fuel: propane (LPG), gasoline, ethanol, methanol, methane (natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The 1997 chevy blazer fuel injection vast majority of fuel injection systems are 4 speed fuel injection for gasoline or diesel applications, and in the past, their components and 94 s-10 blazer fuel injection order designs were quite different. With the american bosch fuel injection ape4b100q advent of "electronic" fuel injection, the diesel and gasoline hardware have grown bosch fuel injection injectors quite similar. EFI's programmable software has permitted common hardware to be used across some of the fuels.

  • Diesel Fuel
    • At one time, bosch fuel injection pumps nearly all diesel engines used high-pressure "mechanical injection", i.e., not "electronic injection".
    • Diesels are rapidly adopting chevy blazer fuel injection replacement EFI, which is based on an crower fuel injection chevy electronic fuel injector similar in basic construction to a modern gasoline injector, although utilizing considerably higher injection csfi fuel injection pressures.
  • Gasoline Fuel
    • Prior to EFI, it was extremely rare for a gasoline cummins caps fuel injection engine to be equipped with fuel injection. If it was, it was most daytona twin tec tcfi ii fuel injection likely a diesel fuel injection pump parts low-pressure mechanical system of relatively "immature" technology. These early systems were generally used on diesel fuel injection service exotic performance vehicles, such as the early V8 powered Corvettes, or for racing.
    • Robert Bosch dodge diesel fuel injection pump los angeles GmbH, and Bendix introduced the first electronic injection systems starting in the electronic fuel injection troubleshooting 1950s, and they were quite dissimilar to today's EFI. (#Evolution)
  • Alternative Fuels (propane (LPG), ethanol, methanol, methane (natural enderly fuel injection gas), hydrogen)
    • The basic components of ford expedition after market fuel injection carburator a gasoline EFI system can also be used with alternative fuel injection care fuels, with appropriate modification. Unique fuel metering values (the calibration contained within the software instructions) are fuel injection diagram 1971 volkswagen type 3 required to accommodate each type of fuel.
    • "Flexible fuel vehicles" are vehicles that are capable of operating on both fuel injection for classic bronco gasoline and alcohol (usually ethanol). These vehicles automatically determine the blend ratio of fuel injection manifold manufacturers the two fuels present in the fuel tank and adjust fuel injection pressure check chevrolet the injector calculations "on the fly". Flexible fuel vehicles have a fuel injection specialties single fuel tank where a blend of both fuels can fuel injection trainning school coexist.
    • "Bi-fuel" vehicles also operate on two types of harley davidson fuel injection fuel, but since the fuels are not functionally compatible with each other, they are jaguar s type 4.2 se fuel injection stored in separate tanks, and the engine burns only one fuel at a time.

Detailed function

Note: The jaguar s type r fuel injection following examples specifically apply to a modern EFI gasoline engine. Parallels to lexus fuel injection fuels other than gasoline can mercruiser fuel injection be made, but only conceptually.

Typical EFI components

  • Injectors
  • Fuel Pump
  • Fuel Pressure Regulator
  • ECM - Engine precision fuel injection Control Module; includes a digital computer and professional fuel injection cleaner circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs.
  • Wiring Harness
  • Various Sensors (Some of the removing yanmar fuel injection pump sensors required are listed here.)
  • Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor
  • Airflow: MAF sensor, sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor
  • Exhaust Gas Oxygen: O2 Sensor, silverhawk fuel injection Oxygen sensor, EGO sensor, UEGO sensor

Functional description

A contemporary EFI system comprises a tvr v8 fuel injection digital computer "engine control module" (ECM) and a number of sensors to measure the engine's operating conditions. The ECM interprets these conditions vw jetta fuel injection tester in order 1993 nissan 300zx fuel injection solenoid to calculate the amount of fuel, among numerous other tasks. 202 fuel injection The desired "fuel flow rate" depends on several conditions, with the engine's "air flow rate" being aftermarket fuel injection system the fundamental factor.

The electronic fuel injector is normally closed and opens to flow fuel as long as an electric pulse american bosch fuel injection pump is applied to the injector. The pulse's duration (pulsewidth) automotive cis fuel injection kit is proportional to the amount bosch cis fuel injection test kit of fuel desired. The pulse is applied once per engine bosch fuel injection pump dodge cycle, which permits pressurized fuel to flow from the fuel supply line, through the open injector, into the engine's air intake, usually just buick grand national parts fuel injection ahead of the intake valve.

Since the camaro fuel injection gas tank nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since canadian hydrogen fuel injection the nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events, the ECM calculates fuel chevy big block fuel injection in discrete amounts. The injected fuel mass is tailored for each individual common rail diesel fuel injection induction event. In other words, every induction event, of every convert gl1000 to fuel injection cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a unique pulsewidth based diesel fuel injection pump 4000 ford tractor on that cylinder's fuel requirements.

It is diesel fuel injection service and sales necessary to know the mass of air the engine dodge diesel fuel injection pump "breathes" during each induction event. This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is proportional to edelbrock fuel injection conversion kits throttle position. The electronic fuel injection manufacturers amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using one of several methods, electronic fuel injection systems but this is beyond the scope of this topic. (See MAF sensor, or ems fuel injection system MAP sensor.)

Note: The right pedal ford 3000 tractor fuel injection pump is not the gas pedal; it is the air pedal. The throttle pedal determines ford fuel electronic fuel injection schematic the air, and in turn, the air mass determines the fuel mass. The same is ford fuel injection systems true for carburetors, only carburetors were volume, not mass based devices. ford mustang fuel injection With some recent systems, the right pedal isn't even an "air pedal"... it has evolved to fuel injection conversion ford a "power demand pedal" - it isn't connected to the fuel injection design services throttle at all, it signals the CPU how far the driver has fuel injection equipment depressed the pedal, and the CPU determines how far to open the throttle fuel injection in high power diesel engines using an electric motor. This fuel injection manifolds has many benefits some of which include: controlling emissions during transients, cruise control, traction control, engine start/cranking, driveline clunk, idle fuel injection system replace carburetor speed control, air conditioning load compensation, etc.

The three elemental ingredients for fuel injection timing cover combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However; complete gasoline injection bosch fuel injectors combustion can only occur if gsxr 1000 fuel injection the air and fuel is present in the exact stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the harley electronic fuel injection removal carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air, with harley fuel injection lines no undesirable polluting leftovers.

To achieve stoichiometry, the air mass flow into the engine is harley oem parts fuel injection lines measured and combined with the fact that the hd carburetor to fuel injection conversion stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is 14.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. The required fuel mass that high pressure fuel injection and natural gas must be injected into the engine is then translated to the required hirel fuel injection pulse width for the fuel injector.

Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions such as honda fuel injection problems heavy load, or cold operation, in which case, the mixture ratio can range how car engines work fuel injection from 10:1 how to prime diesel fuel injection pump to 18:1 (for gasoline).

Note: The stoichiometric ratio changes as a function of the fuel; diesel, gasoline, hydrogen peroxide and alcohol fuel injection ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural gas), or hydrogen.

Additionally, final pulsewidth is jaguar s type 3.0 sport fuel injection inversely related to pressure difference across the injector jeep 4.2 mpfi fuel injection inlet and outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller k&n generation ii fuel injection kit pulsewidth will meter the same fuel. Fuel injectors are available kinsler fuel injection for a 460 boss ford in various sizes and spray characteristics as well. Compensation for these and many marine engines fuel injection other factors are programmed into the ECM's software.

In summary, the vehicle operator opens momar hemi fuel injection systems the engine's throttle (right pedal), atmospheric pressure motorcycle retrofit fuel injection kits forces air into the engine past sensors that indicate air mass flow. The ECM interprets oldsmobile fuel injection these signals from the sensors, calculates perkins fuel injection pump the desired air/fuel ratio, and then outputs a pulsewidth porsche 924 fuel injection troubleshooting providing the exact mass of fuel for optimal combustion. This process is repeated every time an intake valve ram jet fuel injection opens.

The modern EFI system treats each injection as a discrete event, which when all strung together, perform one, toolaid fuel injection cleaning kit smooth, seamless experience. An oversimplified analogy is that it is not unlike vortec fuel injection problems a motion picture vp44 fuel injection pump that appears to move from a series of individual images.

Sample pulsewidth calculations

Note: These calculations are based on vw cis fuel injection lines a 4-stroke-cycle, 5.0L, V-8, gasoline engine. The variables used are real data.

Calculate injector pulsewidth from airflow

First the CPU determines the when to use fuel injection cleaner air mass flow rate from the sensors - lb-air/min. (The various methods to determine wiring harness for toyota 22r fuel injection airflow are beyond the scope of this topic. See MAF sensor, 1982 porsche sc 3.0 fuel injection wiring diagram or MAP sensor.)
  • (lb-air/min) × (min/rev) 1982 z28 5.ol crossfire fuel injection system wiring × (rev/4-intake-stroke) = (lb-air/intake-stroke) = (air-charge)
- min/rev is the reciprocal of engine speed (RPM) – minutes cancel.
- rev/4-intake-stroke for an 1989 corvette fuel injection 8 cylinder 4-stroke-cycle engine.
  • (lb-air/intake-stroke) × (fuel/air) = (lb-fuel/intake-stroke)
- fuel/air is the desired mixture ratio, 1999 gmc truck c3500 2b fuel injection pump usually stoichiometric, but often different depending on operating conditions.
  • (lb-fuel/intake-stroke) × 2000 dodge ram 1500 quad cab fuel injection parts (1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)
- injector-size is the flow capacity 2003 ford f-350 6.0 fuel injection problems of the injector, which in this example is 24-lbs/hour if the 2003 vw jetta tdi fuel injection pump fuel pressure across the injector is 40 psi.
Combining the above three 3800 fuel injection engine not running terms . . .
  • (lbs-air/min) × (min/rev) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) × 3m injection kit fuel injector cleaner (fuel/air) × (1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at idle.
  • (0.55 lb-air/min) after market fuel injection systems motorcycle × (min/700 rev) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) × (1/14.64) × (h/24-lb) × (3,600,000 ms/h) = aftermarket fuel injection kits (2.0 ms/intake-stroke)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at maximum power.
  • (28 lb-air/min) air blast fuel injection × (min/5500 rev) × (rev/4-intake-stroke) × (1/11.00) × (h/24-lb) × (3,600,000 ms/h) = (17.3 ms/intake-stroke)

Injector pulsewidth typically aircraft fuel injection purge valve ranges from 2 ms/engine-cycle at idle, to 20 ms/engine-cycle at wide-open throttle. alcohol fuel injection systems The pulsewidth accuracy is approximately 0.01 ms; injectors amercian bosch fuel injection pump are very precise devices.

Calculate fuel-flow rate from pulsewidth

  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (pulsewidth) × bolt on fuel injection for any car (engine speed) × (number of fuel injectors)
Looking at it another bosch fuel injection mercedes way:
  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (throttle position) × (rpm) × buick grand national fuel injection installation (cylinders)
Looking at it another way:
  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (air-charge) × (fuel/air) × (rpm) × (cylinders)
Substituting real buying webber fuel injection variables for the 5.0 L engine chevron techron fuel injection cleaner at idle.
  • (Fuel flow rate) = (2.0 ms/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000 ms) × (24 common rail fuel injection lb-fuel/hour) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (700 rev/min) × (60 min/h) = (2.24 lb/h)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at maximum power.
  • (Fuel flow converting fuel injection ethonal rate) = diesel fuel injection system (17.3 ms/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000-ms) × (24 lb/h fuel) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (5500-rev/min) × (60-min/hour) = (152 lb/h)

The fuel diesel fuel injection system design consumption rate is 68 times greater at maximum engine output than at idle. This dynamic range diy fuel injection chevy of fuel electronic fuel injection conversion kits flow is typical of a naturally aspirated passenger car engine. The dynamic range is greater on a supercharged or turbocharged engine. It electronic fuel injection kits is interesting to note that 15 gallons of gasoline electronic fuel injection sys will be consumed in 37 minutes if maximum output is sustained. On the other hand, this electronic fuel injection work engine could continuously idle for almost ethanol fuel injection system 42 hours on the same 15 gallons.

Various injection schemes

Throttle body injection

Throttle-body injection (called TBI by General Motors and CFI by Ford) was introduced ford 351w with electric fuel injection in the mid 1980s as a transition technology toward individual port injection. ford 360 fuel injection The TBI system injects fuel ford 4.9 fuel injection to carb conversion at the throttle body (the same location where a carburetor introduced fuel). The induction mixture passes through the intake ford fuel injection parts runners like a carburetor system. The justification for ford fuel injection pressure to high the TBI/CFI phase was low cost. Many of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such ford fuel injection wiring as the air cleaner, fuel injection banjo fittings intake manifold and fuel line routing. This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of these components. Most of these components were fuel injection chrysler big block later redesigned for the next phase of fuel injection's evolution, which is fuel injection custom individual port injection, commonly known as fuel injection harley davidson EFI. TBI was used briefly on passenger cars during fuel injection harpers ferry the mid '80s, and by GM on heavy duty trucks all the fuel injection hose for 1990 chrysler dynasty way through OBD-I (ending in 1995).

Continuous injection

Bosch's K-Jetronic (or CIS, though fuel injection ignition that abbreviation also refers to the Constant Idle Speed subsystem used in many K-Jetronic installations) was introduced in 1974. In this fuel injection international harvester td6 system, fuel sprays constantly from the injectors, rather fuel injection pressure waves than being pulsed in time with the engine's intake strokes. Gasoline is pumped from fuel injection problems in suzuki motorcycles the fuel tank to a large control valve fuel injection pump dodge cummins diesel called a fuel distributor, which separates the single fuel supply pipe from the tank into smaller pipes, one fuel injection system rich bank 1 for each injector. The gm fuel injection high idle troubleshooting fuel distributor is mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must gm fuel injection wiring diagram pass, and the system works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of gpz 1100 fuel injection problems the air harley fuel injection poor milage vane, which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane. The hilborn fuel injection ford injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles; once fuel system pressure how does fuel injection work becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring, the injectors begin spraying. K-Jetronic was used for many years between jaguar s type 2 5 v6 fuel injection 1974 and the mid 1990s by Mercedes jeep fuel injection kit Benz, Volkswagen, Porche, Audi, Saab, and Volvo. There lexus fuel injection system was also a variant of the system called KE-Jetronic that used an oxygen sensor to fine-tune lycoming fuel injection system the mixture. Some Toyota models and other Japanese cars from mazda fuel injection the 1970's to the early 1990's used a licensed version of the L-Jetronic system made by mopar mechanical fuel injection DENSO.

Central port injection (CPI)

General Motors developed an "in-between" technique called "central port injection" pontiac fuel injection (CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). It uses tubes from a central injector programmable fuel injection to spray fuel sea doo schematics fuel injection trouble shooting at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body. However, fuel is continuously injected to all ports simultaneously, which is less self maping fuel injection on motorcycle than optimal.

Multi-point fuel injection

Multi-point fuel small block chevy fuel injection injection injects fuel into individual cylinders, rather than at a central point within tbi fuel injection 151cid engine an intake manifold. MPFI systems can be sequential, in which injection throttle bodt fuel injection force marine outboard engine is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke, batched, in which vw cis fuel injection fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups, without vw rabbit diesel fuel injection pump precise synchronisation to any particular cylinder's intake stroke, or Simultaneous, in which 1975 cadillac fuel injection diagnostics fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.

Direct injection

Many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). The 1982 porsche sc 3.0 fuel injection diagram injection nozzle is placed 1992 2.2 mazda fuel injection inside the combustion chamber and the piston incorporates a depression (often toroidal) 1995 ford mustang fuel injection where initial combustion takes place. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient and cleaner than indirect injection engines. 2000 v 10 dodge fuel injection system See also High-pressure 3800 fuel injection Direct Injection (HDi) .

Some recent petrol engines utilize direct injection as well. This is the next step in evolution from 427 big block ford fuel injection conversions multi port fuel injection and offers another magnitude 500 horsepower 2.3 ford turbo intercooler fuel injection of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the induction system. 57 pontiac fuel injection See also: Gasoline Direct Injection


Pre-emission era

Frederick William Lanchester joined the 90 psi fuel injection hose 5/16th Forward Gas Engine Company Birmingham, England in 1889. He carried out what were aftermarket fuel injection systems possibly the earliest experiments with fuel injection.

Fuel injection has been used commercially in aixam saloon fuel injection diesel engines since the mid 1920s. The bbc fuel injection concept was adapted for use in petrol-powered aircraft during World War II, and direct injection was best big block chevy fuel injection employed in some notable designs better mileage deisel fuel injection like the Daimler-Benz DB 603 and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29 Superfortress.

One of the first bosch pagode fuel injection pump commercial gasoline injection systems was a mechanical system developed cadillac fuel injection by Bosch and introduced in 1955 on the Mercedes-Benz 300SL.

In 1957, Chevrolet introduced can hydrogen be run through a regular fuel injection system a mechanical fuel car fuel injection midget race injection option, made by General Motors' Rochester division, for its 283 V8 car fuel injection system engine. This system directed the inducted engine air across a "spoon shaped" cav fuel injection pump plunger, which moved in proportion to the air volume. The plunger connected to the fuel metering system which mechanically cessna 182 fuel injection conversion dispensed fuel to the cylinders via distribution tubes. This engine produced 283 hp (211 kW) from 283 in³ chevy tbi fuel injection (4.6 L), making it one of the first production engines in history to exceed 1 hp/in³ chrysler fuel injection parts (45.5 kW/L), after Chrysler's Hemi engine and a number of others. covert gmc engine from carborator to fuel injection In another approach, Mercedes' used six individual plungers to feed fuel crower fuel injection to each of the six cylinders.

During the 1960's, other diesel fuel injection manifold mechanical injection systems such as Hilborn were occasionally used on modified digital fuel injection for harley American V8 engines in various racing applications such as drag racing, dodge fuel injection oval racing, and road racing. These racing-derived systems were dodge fuel injection pump 24 valve not suitable for everyday street use.

One of the first electronic fuel injection system was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation and does fuel injection cleaning save gas introduced on the 1958 DeSoto Adventurer, arguably the first production dt466 fuel injection pump (throttle-body) EFI system. The patents were subsequently sold to Bosch.

Bosch developed an electronic fuel injection system, easy bolt on fuel injection for any car called D-Jetronic (D edelbrock chevy pick up fuel injection kit for Druck, the German word for pressure), which was first electronic fuel injection 4.3 engine used on the VW 1600TL in 1967. This was a speed/density system, using engine speed and intake manifold air density to calculate electronic fuel injections "air mass" flow rate and thus fuel experimental fuel injection systems requirements. The system used all analog, first fuel injection discrete electronics, and an electro-mechanical pressure sensor. The sensor was susceptible to vibration and dirt. This system was flathead ford tunnelram fuel injection adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citroën, ford 302 higher mileage fuel injection Saab and Volvo. Lucas licensed the system for production with Jaguar.

Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the L-Jetronic and K-Jetronic systems ford 7.3 fuel injection for 1974, though some cars (such ford diesel fuel injection lines as the Volvo 164) continued using D-Jetronic for the following several years, and General Motors installed a very close copy of ford fe fuel injection D-Jetronic on Cadillacs ford fuel injection repair starting in 1977. L-Jetronic first appeared on the 1974 Porsche foreign vehicle fuel injection test kits 914, and uses a mechanical airflow meter (L for Luft, German for air) which fuel injection banjo bolt produces a signal that is porportional to "air volume". This fuel injection calgary approach required additional sensors to measure the barometer and temperature, to utlitmately calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was widely adopted on fuel injection carbon filter European cars of that period, and a few Japanese models a short time later.

Post emission fuel injection gm parts era

In 1975, California's emissions regulations (the most stringent in the world) required manufacturers to dramatically reduce tailpipe emissions. The only fuel injection manifold 460 ford feasible technology of that era that enabled auto manufacturers to meet the new regulations fuel injection manifold kinsler 460 ford was the catalytic converter. GM had only recently invented fuel injection motor cycle diy the automotive exhaust catalyst, and automakers rushed the new technology into fuel injection parts mazda injectors production. A catalyst promotes a reaction without itself becoming consumed in the reaction. In this fuel injection performance case, an oxidation catalyst was designed into the fuel injection problems in a ford vehicle's exhaust system to promote reactions of the exhaust constituents fuel injection repair chevy truck in the presence of heat. When hot products of combustion, such as fuel injection service unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, are exposed fuel injection subaru to the catalyst material (platinum and/or palladium), the exhaust compounds are nearly all oxidized into water and carbon dioxide.

Stricter legislation to fuel injection system in car further limit a family of compounds called oxides of fuel injection system rich bank 1 gmc nitrogen occurred in 1980. This required a reduction catalyst (rhodium) to reduce the various nitrogen oxides into fuel injection systems hotline free nitrogen and oxygen. The addition fuel injection vaper of a "reducing" catalyst, along with the oxidation catalyst, is an approach fuel injection vs carburetor called a "3-way" catalyst system. The "3" fuel injection water fuel comes from the ability to dramatically reduce all three families of regulated compounds addressed in the EPA "Clean fuel injection wire harness Air Act."

The reduction catalyst is placed upstream of the oxidation fuel pump injection catalyst, usually in the same housing. The reduction process liberates oxygen from the NOx compounds, gasoline gas fuel vapor injection plumbing and this oxygen is then used in the downstream catalyst to gm fuel injection prime connector oxidize unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

In order to take maximum advantage of a 3-way catalyst, excellent gm fuel injection pulse width crank air/fuel ratio control is essential. EFI systems improved fuel gm vortec 4.3 fuel injection parts control in two major stages.

  • Open loop EFI systems go kart fuel injection improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution, but generally had poorer air/fuel ratio h fuel injection control than a carburetor due to manufacturing tolerance issues.
  • Closed loop EFI systems improved the air/fuel ratio control with harley fuel injection and main jet setting an Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO sensor). The EGO sensor is harley fuel injection service bulletin mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the haynes fuel injection catalyst. It detects excess oxygen in the exhaust stream. Oxygen, or the lack of it, indicates whether the air/fuel is history of ford fuel injection engines lean or rich of the stoichiometric ratio. The EGO history of fuel injection sensor is also known as a Lambda-Sond sensor or O2 sensor.

Combining all three features,

  • cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution
  • closed loop holley electronic fuel injection for 351 w air/fuel ratio control
  • 3-way catalytic converter

current exhaust emissions are now less holley fuel injection pumps than 0.1% of their pre-regulated level.

In 1982, Bosch introduced a sensor honda civic fuel injection problems that directly measures the air mass flow into the engine, on their L-Jetronic system. Bosch called this LH-Jetronic (L for Luft, or air, and H for Heiße-leitung, or hot-wire). The mass air sensor utilizes a heated platinum wire placed in the incoming air flow. The rate of the wire's cooling is proportional to the "air mass" flowing across the wire. Since the "hot wire" sensor directly measures air mass, the need for additional temperature and pressure sensors is eliminated.

The LH-Jetronic system was also the first "all digital" EFI system, which is now the standard approach. The advent of the digital microprocessor permitted the integration of all powertrain sub-systems into a single control module. Full exploitation of the digital revolution has further improved EFI air/fuel ratio control, as well as many other automotive control systems unrelated to the engine.

See also

  • High Diesel Injection (HDi).

External links

  • History of the D Jetronic system
  • Fuel Injection theory
  • How Fuel Injection Systems Work
  • The role of spray technology in fuel injection
Search Term: "Fuel_injection"

- fuel injection systems