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diesel engine in the news

Fines await users of diesel with higher contents of sulphur 

The Enid News & Eagle - Oct 07 10:18 PM
A deadline affecting how diesel fuel is mixed is looming and may cost users a lot of money in fines.

Natural gas wins out over diesel in generator battle 
Big Bear Grizzly - Oct 07 5:23 PM
Big Bear Area Regional Wastewater Agency gets the award for due diligence. It took 10 months, five presentations and revised persuasion to make a decision to purchase natural gas generators instead of a diesel powered version.

New Engines for Range Rover and Range Rover Sport 
AutoSpies.com - Oct 07 3:31 PM
A fourth engine will join the Range Rover and Range Rover Sport line-up by the end of the year, with the all-new TDV8 twin-turbo diesel bringing added potency and torque to the off-road market.

Luxury in diesel begins with an S 
The Scotsman: Business - Oct 07 5:31 PM
A FUEL revolution holds little to fear for Mercedes, writes Frederic Manby.

diesal engine

 

 

- diesel engine

- diesel engines

A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design

The diesel engine is diesel engines a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it diesel engine is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited solely diesel engine performance by the high temperature created by compression of diesel engine performance part the air-fuel mixture, rather than by a separate source of ignition, such as a spark plug, as is the case in the small diesel engines gasoline engine.

The engine operates using the diesel cycle.

The engine cummins diesel engines is named after German engineer Rudolf Diesel, who invented it in 1892 based marine diesel engines on the hot bulb engine and received the patent diesel engine work on February 23, 1893. Diesel intended the engine to use automotive diesel engines a variety of fuels including coal dust. He demonstrated it cummins diesel engine parts in the 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) using peanut oil (see biodiesel).

Contents

  • 1 Early diesel engine and part history timeline
  • 2 How diesel engines work
  • 3 Fuel injection diesel engine cummins in diesel engines
    • 3.1 Early Fuel Injection diesel engine generators Systems
    • 3.2 Mechanical and electronic injection
    • 3.3 Indirect marine diesel engine injection
    • 3.4 Direct industrial diesel engines injection
      • 3.4.1 Distributor pump direct injection
      • 3.4.2 Common rail direct injection
      • 3.4.3 Unit catepiller diesel engines direct injection
      • 3.4.4 Hypodermic man marine diesel engines injection injury hazard
  • 4 Types of diesel engines
  • 5 Carbureted small diesel engine compression ignition model engines
  • 6 Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines
    • 6.1 Power detroit diesel engines and fuel economy
    • 6.2 Emissions
    • 6.3 Power and yanmar diesel engines Torque
    • 6.4 Reliability
    • 6.5 Quality and diesel engine cylinder liner cummins variety of fuels
  • 7 Dieseling in spark-ignition engines
  • 8 Fuel and fluid diesel engine oil characteristics
  • 9 Diesel toyota diesel engines applications
    • 9.1 Unusual applications
      • 9.1.1 Aircraft
      • 9.1.2 Automobile diesel engine mitsubishi part racing
      • 9.1.3 Motorcycles
  • 10 Current and future developments
  • 11 Modern diesel facts
  • 12 Diesel ford diesel engines inboard diesel engine car history
  • 13 See also
  • 14 External links
  • 15 Sources

Early history timeline

  • 1862 - Nicolaus Otto develops his coal gas engine, perkins diesel engine similar china marine diesel engine to a modern gasoline engine.
  • 1891 - Herbert Akroyd-Stuart, of Bletchley perfects his oil engine, and leases rights diesel engines from china to Hornsby of England to build engines. They build the first cold perkins diesel engines start, compression ignition engines
  • 1892 - Hornsby engine No. 101 is built cooking oil fuel for diesel engines and installed in a waterworks. It is now in the MAN truck museum in Northern England.
  • 1892 - hatz diesel engines Rudolf Diesel develops his Carnot heat engine type motor used mazda diesel engines which burnt powdered coal dust. He is employed worlds largest diesel engine by refrigeration genius Carl von Linde, then Munich iron manfacturer MAN AG and diesel engine diagnostic software later by the Sulzer engine company of Switzerland. He borrows john deere 4219 industrial diesel engine ideas from them and leaves a legacy with all firms.
  • 1892 - John Froelich builds his oil engine powered farm low rpm diesel engine tractor.
  • 1894 - Witte, Reid, and Fairbanks start building oil engines with diesel engine cars a variety of ignition systems.
  • 1896 - Hornsby ford diesel pickup engine oil builds diesel tractors and railway engines.
  • 1897 - Winton produces and jeep diesel engine drives the first US built gas automobile; he later builds diesel plants.
  • 1897 - Mirrlees, Watson & Yaryan detroit diesel engine build the first British diesel engine under license from Rudolf Diesel. This is now displayed in the diesel engine overhaul kits Science Museum at South Kensington, London.
  • 1898 - Busch installs a small diesel marine engines Rudolf Diesel type engine in his brewery in St. Louis. diesel engine power plant It is the first in the United States. Rudolf kubota diesel engines Diesel perfects his compression start engine, patents and licences it. This engine, pictured above, is in a German museum.
  • 1899 - marine diesel engines florida Diesel licenses his engine to builders Burmeister used 6.6 ford diesel engine & Wain, Krupp and Sulzer who become famous builders.
  • 1902 - F. Rundlof invents the two used diesel engine stroke crankcase, scavanged hot bulb engine.
  • 1903 Ship Gjoa transits the diesel engine machining ice filled, Northwest Passage, aided diesel engine troubleshooting with a Dan kerosene engine.
  • 1904 - French build the first diesel submarine, the Z,
  • 1908 - Bolinder/Munktell start building two stroke ford diesel pickup engine oil recommendations diesel engines.
  • 1912 - First diesel ship MS Selandia is built. SS Fram, polar explorer Amundsen’s flagship, low rpm diesel engines converted to a AB vw diesel engine Atlas diesel.
  • 1913 - Fairbanks Morse starts building its Y model semi-Diesel. US Navy submarines use NELSECO witte diesel engine parts units.
  • 1914 - German U-Boats are 5 hp diesel engine powered by MAN diesels. War service proves engine's reliability.
  • 1920s - Fishing fleets convert to oil estep diesel engine engines. Atlas-Imperial of Oakland, Union, and Lister diesels appear.
  • 1924 - First diesel trucks appear.
  • 1928 - Canadian National ford mondeo diesel engine diagram Railways employ a diesel shunter in their yards.
  • 1930s - Clessie Cummins starts with Dutch diesel honda diesel engine engines and then builds his peugeot 406 diesel engine diagram own into trucks, and a Duesenberg luxury car at power stroke ford diesel engine problems the Daytona speedway.
  • 1930s - Caterpillar tractor start building diesels for their tractors.
  • 1934 - General Motors repairs ford power stroke diesel engine starts a GM diesel research faciility. It builds diesel railroad engines--The Pioneer Zephyr, and goes on to detroit diesel series 60 engine history found the General Motors Electro-Motive Division, which becomes important building engines for landing diesel engine rebuilders craft and tanks in the Second World War. GM then applies this ford diesel engine id knowledge to market control with its famous ‘Green Leakers” for buses, and railroad noise control of diesel engines engines.
  • 1936 - caterpillar diesel engines Mercedes-Benz builds the 260D diesel car. A.T.S.F inaugerates the diesel train Super Chief
  • 1936 - Airship Hindenburg powered by diesel engines.

How diesel detroit diesel series 60 engine engines work

When a gas is compressed, its diesel engine parts temperature rises (see the combined gas law); a diesel engine uses this property ford diesel power stroke engine reliality to ignite the fuel. international harvester 6.9 diesel engine Air is drawn into the cylinder of a diesel engine and compressed by the rising piston at a much truck accessories van engine diesel parts services custom higher compression ratio than for used construction diesel engines a spark-ignition engine, up to 25:1. The air temperature reaches 700–900 °C, or 1300–1650 °F. At the top of the piston stroke, 6 0l power stroke diesel engines diesel fuel is injected into detroit diesel engine cores the combustion chamber at high pressure, through an atomising nozzle, mixing with the hot, high-pressure how diesel engines work air. The resulting mixture ignites and burns isuzu diesel engines very rapidly. This contained combustion causes the gas in the chamber to heat isuzu marine diesel engine up rapidly, which increases its pressure, which in turn forces morgan sailboat diesel engine the piston downwards. The connecting rod transmits this motion to the crankshaft, which is forced to turn, delivering rotary power at the output universal marine diesel engine end of the crankshaft. Scavenging (pushing the exhausted gas-charge out of 2005 dodge ram diesel engine parts list the cylinder, alfa romeo tractor diesel engines and drawing in a fresh draught of air) of the engine is done either by ports or valves. deutz diesel engine To fully realize the capabilities of a diesel engine, use of a turbocharger to compress deutz diesel engines the intake air is necessary; use of an diesel engine conversions aftercooler/intercooler to cool the intake air after compression diesel engine emission by the turbocharger further increases efficiency.

In very cold weather, diesel fuel thickens and increases in viscosity and forms wax crystals or diesel engine fuel injectors a gel. This can make it difficult for the fuel injector to man diesel engines get fuel into the cylinder in an effective manner, making cold weather starts remanufactured diesel engines difficult at times, though recent advances in diesel fuel technology have single cylinder diesel engine made these difficulties rare. volkswagen diesel engine A commonly applied advance is to electrically heat the fuel bmc 1500 diesel engine filter and fuel lines. Other engines utilize small electric heaters called glow plugs inside the common rail diesel engine cylinder to warm the cylinders prior to starting. cummins diesel crate engines A small number use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to diesel electric engine warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric diesel engine casting numbers resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility diesel engine low oil pressure causes grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more diesel engine maintenance than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and diesel engine pictures engine wear.

A vital component of older diesel engine systems was the governor, which limited the speed of the engine diesel engine price list by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike a petrol (gasoline) engine, the incoming air diesel engines parts and sales is not throttled, do after market power chips hurt ford f350 diesel engines so the engine would overspeed if this was not done. Older injection systems were duramax diesel engine driven by a gear system from the engine ford 6.4 liter diesel engines (and thus supplied fuel only linearly with engine speed). Modern electronically-controlled engines apply ford power stroke diesel engine similar control to petrol engines and limit the maximum RPM through the electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit indian manufacture diesel engine (ECU) - the engine-mounted "computer". The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed opel 2.2 diesel engine signal from a sensor and then using sales and service of marine diesel engine its algorithms and look-up calibration tables stored in the ECM/ECU, it controls the amount of fuel and its timing (the "start stewart & stevenson detroit 453 diesel engine parts list of injection") through electric or hydraulic actuators to maintain cessna 172 diesel engine aircraft engine speed.

Controlling the timing of the diesel aircraft engines start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy diesel engine and horse power (efficiency), of the engine. The exact timing of starting this fuel injection into diesel engine based power plants the cylinder is controlled electronically in most of today's modern engines. The diesel engine overhaul kit timing is usually measured in units of crank angle diesel engine repair of the piston before Top Dead Center (TDC). diesel engine tools For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when diesel engines for sale the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection or "timing" is said to be 10 high performance diesel engines deg BTDC. The optimal timing will depend on import used japanese diesel engines both the engine design as well as its speed japan diesel engines and load.

Advancing (injecting when the piston is further away from TDC) the start of injection results in higher remanufactered diesel engine in-cylinder pressure, temperature, and higher efficiency but also results in higher emissions ruggerini 4stroke diesel engine of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) due to slow speed diesel engine the higher temperatures. At the other extreme, very retarded start of injection or timing causes incomplete combustion. This results in higher surplus 6.2 liter diesel engine Particulate Matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and troubleshooting,technique and tactics for diesel engine more smoke.

Fuel injection in 4-53 diesel engine diesel engines

Early Fuel Injection Systems

The modern diesel engine is a combination of two inventors' creations. In all major aspects, it holds biodoesel for diesel cummins engines true to Diesel's original design, of the fuel cummins 5.9 diesel engine specs being ignited by compression at extremely high diesel engine conversion ford pickup cylinder pressures. However, nearly all present-day diesel engines use diesel engine mounts the so-called 'solid' injection system invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart, for his hot bulb engine (a diesel engine sales compression-ignition engine that precedes the diesel engine and operates slightly diesel engine starters differently). 'Solid' injection is where the fuel is raised to extreme pressures by diesel engine swap mechanical pumps and delivered to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors in an almost solid-state jet. Diesel's diesel marine engine original engine injected fuel with the diesel outboard engines assistance of compressed air, which atomised the fuel and forced it into the engine ford diesel engine through a nozzle. This was 'air-blast' injection. The size of the compressor needed gmc diesel engine parts to power such a system made early diesel engines very heavy and large for their power outputs, how does a vw turbo diesel engine work and the need to drive a compressor lowered this power john deere tractor diesel engine blow-by output even more. Early marine diesels often had smaller runaway diesel engine auxiliary engines whose sole purpose was to drive the compressors to supply air to surplus diesel engines the main engine's injector system. Such a system was too bulky and inefficient to be used vw diesel engine rebuild for road-going automotive vehicles.

Solid injection worlds most powerful diesel engine systems are lighter, simpler and allow much faster engine speeds, and so are 7 3 diesel power stroke engine universally used for automotive diesel engines. Air-blast systems provide very efficient combustion under low-speed, high-load conditions, especially can diesel engines run on kerosen when running on poor-quality fuels, so some large 'cathedral' marine engines use this d4d turbo diesel engine injection method. Air-blast injection also raises the fuel temperature during the detroit diesel marine engines injection process, so is sometimes known as 'hot-fuel' injection. In contrast, solid injection diesel aircraft engine is sometimes called 'cold-fuel' injection.

Given that diesel engine comparison the vast majority of diesel engines in diesel engine kits service today use solid injection, the information below relates to that system.

Mechanical and electronic injection

Older engines make use of a mechanical diesel engine modification fuel pump and valve assembly which is driven by the engine crankshaft, diesel engine power usually from the timing belt or chain. diesel engine power diagram These engines use simple injectors which diesel engine swaps are basically very precise spring-loaded valves which will open and close at a specific fuel pressure. The pump assembly consists of diesel engine theory a pump which pressurizes diesel engines and rpm the fuel, and a disc-shaped valve which rotates at half crankshaft speed. diesel engines distributors uk The valve has a single aperture to the pressurized fuel on one side, and one aperture for each injector diesel ford power stroke engine firing order on the other. As the engine turns the valve discs will line up diesel major tips engine overhaul and deliver a burst of pressurized fuel to engine specs powerstroke diesel stock horse power the injector at the cylinder about to enter its power stroke. The injector valve is forced engine swap 1986 ford pickup truck diesel to gas open by the find specific location of sensors on a 7.3 diesel engine fuel pressure and the diesel is injected until the valve rotates out of alignment and the fuel pressure to ford 6 litre power stroke diesel engine drawbacks that injector is cut off. Engine speed is controlled by a third disc, which rotates only a ford diesel 60l power stroke engine few degrees and is controlled by the throttle lever. ford f350 trucks with diesel engine This disc alters the width of the aperture through which the fuel passes, how a diesel engine works and therefore how long the how to get more power from turbo diesel engines injectors are held open before the fuel supply is cut, controlling increase horse power in diesel engines the amount of fuel injected.

Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, isuzu diesel engine albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake. kubota diesel engine This was often a consequence of bump starting layman diesel engines uk a vehicle using the wrong gear.

This contrasts lombardini diesel engines with the more modern method of having a separate fuel pump (or set of pumps) which supplies fuel constantly at new ford marine diesel engine sales uk high pressure to each injector. Each injector then has a solenoid which one cylinder diesel engines is operated by an electronic control unit, which enables power powerstroke ford diesel engines more accurate control of injector opening times depending on other control conditions power stroke diesel engine such as engine speed and loading, resulting in better engine performance and fuel economy. power stroke diesel engines This design is also mechanically simpler than used british diesel engines the combined pump and valve design, making it generally more reliable, and less noisy, used ford diesel engine than its mechanical counterpart.

Both mechanical and electronic injection vw diesel engines systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations. (see below)

Indirect injection

Main article: Indirect injection

An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel 6 megawatt diesel engine power into a chamber off the combustion chamber, called a api oil classifications diesel engines prechamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber, assisted by turbulence created in the chamber. This system allows auv diesel engines mitsubishi smoother, quieter running, and because can diesel engines run backward combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, which in the days of mechanical injection systems can diesel engines run on kerosene allowed high-speed chinese diesel engine parts running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speed of around 4,000 rpm). The prechamber had the disadvantage convert gas engine to diesel of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system and restricting the diesel engine air filters combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by between 5-10% in comparison to a direct injection diesel engine cars sold in california engine, and nearly all require some form of cold-start device such as glow plugs. diesel engine computer chips Indirect injection engines diesel engine controls were used widely in small-capacity high-speed diesel engines in automotive, marine and construction uses from the 1950s, until direct-injection technology diesel engine for sale advanced in the 1980s. Indirect injection engines are diesel engine ford marine merlin part uk cheaper to build and it is easier diesel engine generator manufacturer power to produce smooth, quiet running vehicles with a simple mechanical system, so such engines are still often used diesel engine glow plugs in applications which carry less stringent emissions controls diesel engine history than road-going vehicles, such as small marine engines, generators, tractors, pumps. With electronic injection diesel engine mileage systems, indirect injection engines are still used in some road-going vehicles, but most prefer the greater efficiency diesel engine ratings of direct injection.

Direct injection

Modern diesel engines make use of one of diesel engine symptoms the following direct injection methods:

Distributor pump direct injection

The first incarnations of direct injection diesels used a ford diesel tractor engine rotary pump much like indirect injection diesels, gm diesel engines however the injectors were mounted in the top of the combustion chamber rather than gmc toro flow marine diesel engines in a separate pre-combustion chamber. Examples are vehicles such as the Ford Transit honda and diesel engine and the Austin Rover Maestro and Montego with their Perkins Prima engine. The problem with these hummer 6.5l diesel engines vehicles was the harsh noise that they made and particulate (smoke) emissions. This is international d358 diesel engine the reason that in the main this type of engine was limited to commercial vehicles— international diesel engines the notable exceptions being the Maestro, Montego and Fiat Croma passenger john deere 4219 diesel engine cars. Fuel consumption was key power diesel engines about fifteen to twenty percent lower than indirect injection diesels, kubota diesel engine parts which for some buyers was enough to compensate for the extra noise.

One of the lister diesel engines first small-capacity, mass-produced direct-injection engines that could be called refined was developed by the Rover Group.citation needed] The '200Tdi' 2.5-litre 4-cylinder turbodiesel (of 111 horsepower) newmar all-star mid engine diesel was used by Land Rover in their vehicles from 1989, and the engine used an aluminium cylinder head, Bosch two-stage injection and power chips for diesel engines power diesel engines multi-phase glow plugs to produce a smooth-running and economical engine while still using mechanical preventing vapor lock in diesel engines fuel injection.

This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump, pioneered rudolf diesel the diesel engine by Volkswagen Audi group with the Audi 100 TDI introduced in 1989. The swap gas engine to diesel engine injection pressure was still only around 300 bar, but the injection timing, fuel quantity, exhaust gas recirculation and used 6.5 diesel engine turbo boost were all volvo diesel marine engine electronically controlled. This gave much more precise control of these parameters which made refinement much more waiste oil for diesel engine acceptable and emissions acceptably low. Fairly quickly the technology trickled down to more mass ww2 german aircraft diesel engine market vehicles such as the Mark 3 Golf TDI where it proved 10hp diesel electric start engine to be very popular. These cars were both more economical and more 2 cycle detroit diesel engines powerful than indirect injection competitors of 5hp diesel engine their day.

Common rail direct injection

Main article: 7 3 power stroke diesel rebuild engines Common rail

In older diesel engines, a distributor-type injection pump, regulated by the engine, supplies 99 ford f350 wiring diagram free for diesel engine bursts of fuel to injectors which are simply nozzles through which advantages of diesel verses gas turbine engines the diesel is sprayed into the engine's combustion chamber.

In common rail systems, the distributor injection pump is eliminated. Instead an extremely high banks power programmers for diesel engines pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel bc diesel engine mechanic jobs at high pressure - up to 1,800 bar (180 MPa, 26,000 psi) best diesel engine - in a "common rail", basically a tube which in turn branches off to computer-controlled injector valves, cat diesel engines each of which contains a precision-machined nozzle and a check engine light problems on ford 6.0 diesel plunger driven by a solenoid,or even by piezo-electric actuators, which are found on cummins diesel engine experimental diesel race car engines.

Most European automakers have cummins diesel engine air filters common rail diesels in their model lineups, even for commercial vehicles. Some diesel crate engine Japanese manufacturers, such as Toyota, Nissan and recently Honda, have also developed common rail diesel engines.

Different car diesel engine computer makers refer to their common rail diesel engine driven pump drives engines by different names, e.g. DaimlerChrysler's CDI, Ford Motor Company's TDCi (most of these engines are diesel engine emission calculation procedure manufactured by PSA), Fiat Group's (Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia) JTD, Renault's DCi, GM/Opel's diesel engine loss of power CDTi (most of these engines are manufactured by Fiat, other diesel engine oils by Isuzu), Hyundai's CRDi, Mitsubishi's DI-D, PSA diesel engine runaway Peugeot Citroën's HDi (Engines for commercial diesel vehicles are diesel engine small autonatic cars made by Ford Motor Company), Toyota's D-4D, and so on.

Unit direct injection

This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of diesel engine technology conference the engine. However, in diesel engines electric power generators diesel this system the injector and the pump are combined into diesel engines reconditioned one unit positioned over each cylinder. Each cylinder thus has its effects of altitude on diesel engine power own pump, feeding its own injector, which prevents pressure fluctuations and allows more consistent injection to be achieved. This type of fleetrite diesel engine oil defoamer injection system, also developed by Bosch, is used by Volkswagen AG gm 6.5l diesel engine in cars (where it is called Pumpe Düse - literally "pump nozzle"), Mercedes Benz (PLD) and gm diesel engine gm-90 20/1 diesel engine most major diesel engine manufacturers, in large commercial engines (Cat, Cummins, Detroit Diesel). With recent isuzu v12 diesel engine advancements, the pump pressure has been raised to 2,050 bar (205 MPa), allowing injection parameters similar to common john deere marine diesel engines rail systems.

Hypodermic injection injury hazard

Because many diesel engine fuel injection systems operate largest diesel engine at extremely lorry diesel engine fuel injectors high pressure, there is a risk of injury by hypodermic injection of lowering usaf diesel engine nox emissions fuel, if the fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air.

Types of diesel engines

There are two classes market power chips hurt ford f350 diesel engines of diesel (and gasoline) mercedes diesel engines engines: two-stroke and four-stroke. Most diesels generally use the four-stroke cycle, mins diesel power engine qsk23 g3 with some larger diesels operating on the two-stroke cycle, mainly the huge engines in ships (see also Nissan UD3, UD4 most efficient diesel engine and UD6 engine series). Most modern locomotives use a two-stroke diesel mated to mtu diesel engines a generator, which produces current to drive electric motors, eliminating the new dodge diesel engine need for a transmission. To achieve operational pressure in the cylinders, two-stroke nissan diesel engine mechanic diesels must utilize forced aspiration from either a turbocharger or power generators diesel engines supercharger. Diesel two-strokes are ideal for such applications because of their power point presentation diesel engine high power density--with twice as many power strokes per rebuilt diesel engines crankshaft revolution compared to a four-stroke, they are capable rebuilt ford f350 diesel engine v6 of producing much more power per displacement.

Normally, banks of cylinders are used in multiples of two, reconditioned toyota diesel engines australia although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is repairing small diesel engines counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-6 is the most prolific in medium- testing for diesel engine emission to heavy-duty engines, though toyota diesel engine power the V8 and straight-4 are also common.

As a footnote, prior to 1949, Sulzer started experimenting turbo-supercharged diesel engine with two-stroke engines with boost pressures as high as two cycle diesel aircraft engines 6 atmospheres, in which all of the output power was taken from an exhaust used 16 valve cummins diesel engine turbine. The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make used diesel engines for sale a positive displacement gas generator. Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts. volvo diesel engines Several of these units could be connected together to provide power gas to witte diesel engine one large output turbine. The overall thermal efficiency was roughly 10-20hp diesel engines twice that of a simple gas turbine. (Source Modern High-Speed 1988 ford f350 7 3 diesel engine Oil Engines Volume II by C. W. Chapman published by The 2002 f250 power stoke diesel engine specs Caxton Publishing Co. Ltd. reprinted in July 1949)

Carbureted compression ignition model engines

Simple compression 2007 ford diesel engine ignition engines are made for model propulsion. This is quite similar 23c diesel engine to the typical glow-plug engine that runs on a mixture of methanol (methyl alcohol) 6,5 diesel to gas engine conversion and lubricant (typically castor oil) (and occasionally air boats with diesel engines nitro-methane to improve performance) with a hot wire filament to provide ignition. Rather animated displays of a diesel engine than containing a glow plug the head has an adjustable contra piston above the piston, forming the upper automotive diesel engine manifacturers surface of the combustion chamber. This contra b20 and vw diesel engines piston is restrained by an adjusting screw controlled by an external belt routing diagram for caterpillar 3126 diesel engine lever (or sometimes by a removable hex key). The chip diesel engine pittsburg power fuel used contains ether, which is highly volatile and has an extremely low flash point, combined with kerosene and cummins diesel used engines a lubricant plus a very small detroit diesel engine conversions proportion (typically 2%) of ignition improver such as Amyl nitrate or detroit diesel engine parts preferably Isopropyl nitrate nowadays. The engine is started by reducing the compression and setting the spray bar mixture diesel engine basics rich with the adjustable needle valve, diesel engine filter power gradually increasing the compression while cranking the engine. The compression is increased until the engine starts running. The mixture can then diesel engine forums be leaned out and the diesel engine motor oil compression increased. Compared to glow plug engines, model diesel engines exhibit much higher fuel economy, diesel engine piston cooling nozzles thus increasing endurance for the amount of fuel carried. They also exhibit higher torque, enabling the turning of a diesel engine power kits larger or higher pitched propellor at slower speed. diesel engine power point presentation Since the combustion occurs well before the diesel engine problems exhaust port is uncovered, these engines are also considerably quieter (when unmuffled) than glow-plug engines of similar displacement. Compared to glow diesel engine replacement parts diesel engines and carbon monoxide poisoning plug engines, model diesels are more difficult to throttle over a wide range of powers, making them less suitable for radio control diesel in gas engine models than either two or diesel starting pony engine four stroke glow-plug engines although this difference is claimed to be less noticeable with the diesel to gas engine swaps for chevy truck use of modern schneurle-ported engines.

Advantages and disadvantages diesel utility engine versus spark-ignition engines

Power and fuel economy

Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, early diesel engines resulting in lower fairbanks-morse diesel engine fuel consumption. A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current for sale ford v8 diesel engine in philippines model Skoda Octavia, using Volkswagen ford c-6 transmission for a 6.9 ford diesel engine engines, has a combined Euro mpg of 38 mpg for the 102 bhp petrol engine ford diesel engine trouble and 53 mpg for the 105 bhp diesel engine. ford new diesel engine However, such a comparison doesn't take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains more energy, g m diesel engines about 15% more. Adjusting the gm 6.5 diesel replacement engine numbers for the Octavia, one finds the overall energy efficiency is still about 20% greater for the gm 6.5 turbo diesel engine diesel version, despite the weight penalty of its engine. When comparing engines of relatively low power for guages for duramax diesel engines the vehicle's weight (such as the 75 hp engines for the ho model power emd e7 diesel santa fe engine undecorat VW Golf), the diesel's overall energy efficiency advantage is reduced further still, how does a diesel engine work to between 10 john deere 4440 tractor diesel engine and 15 percent.

While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are much more economical than gasoline (petrol) engines when kabota diesel engines at low power and at engine land rover diesel engine idle. Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve low rpm indian diesel engines (choke) in the inlet system, which closes at idle. This creates parasitic drag on the incoming air, reducing the efficiency marine engines gas vs diesel power of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. Due to their lower heat losses, diesel mechanical components diesel engines engines rarely run the risk nissan diesel engine of gradually overheating if left idling for a long period of time providing the cooling system performance diesel engines is in good order. In many applications, such as marine, agriculture and railways, diesel-engined vehicles are left power plant diesel engine mechanicoperator idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days. powerstroke diesel engine oil leaks These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselization for reduce emmissions from diesel engines more information).

Naturally aspirated diesel engines are heavier than gasoline engines of the same remanufactured ford diesel 73 power stroke engines power for two reasons. The first is that it takes a larger displacement diesel engine to produce rotary diesel engine the same power as a troubleshooting diesel engines gasoline engine. This is essentially because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds [1]. truck diesel engine rebuilders Diesel fuel is injected just before ignition, leaving the fuel little time to "find" trucks cars with diesel cummins engine all the oxygen in the cylinder. In the gasoline engine, used toyota diesel engines uk air and fuel are mixed van diesel engine for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete mixing even at higher vectra diesel flashing engine management light engine speeds. The second reason for the greater weight of a diesel engine is it must be stronger to warranty for 2003 duramax diesel engines withstand the higher combustion pressures needed for ignition, 1984 chevy celebrity diesel engine and the shock loading from the detonation of the ignition mixture. As a result, the reciprocating mass (the piston 1986 isuzu trooper diesel engine parts and connecting rod), and the resultant forces to accelerate and to 2-71 detroit diesel engine decelerate these masses, are substantially higher the heavier, the bigger and the 50 horse power diesel engine stronger the part, agricultural diesel engine and the laws of diminishing returns of component strength, mass of component and inertia - airsept crankcase ventilation for diesel engines all come into play to create a balance of offsets, of optimal mean power output, weight and durability.

Yet it allis chalmers diesel engines is this same build quality that has caterpillar diesel engine in utah allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases catipillar engines heavy power diesel with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications. A gasoline engine of similar size cannot chevy luv diesel engine put out a comparable power increase without extensive chip diesel engine power alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher control of diesel engine exhaust emissions in the workplace, stresses placed upon them. Since a diesel engine is already built to convert engine mercedes diesel chevy v8 withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little converting gas engines to diesel expense. However it should be said that any modification that raises the cooking oil diesel engines amount of fuel and air put through daihatsu diesel engine a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and daros diesel engines increase its service interval requirements. These are issues with newer, lighter, "high performance" diesel engines which aren't "overbuilt" diesel crate engines to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to diesel engine back fires provide greater power in smaller engines.

The addition diesel engine black smoke of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine (see turbodiesel) greatly assists in diesel engine conversion increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake diesel engine courses speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement. Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, and the diesel engine efficiency higher compression ratio allows diesel engine fuel mileage a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. Although the calorific diesel engine gas value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules diesel engine jeep liberty per kilogram) to gasoline at 45.8 MJ/kg, diesel fuel is much denser and fuel is sold by volume, so diesel engine modifications diesel contains diesel engine sounds more energy per litre or gallon. The increased fuel economy of the diesel over the gasoline engine diesel engine specifications means that the diesel produces diesel engine test cell operation less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance. Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability diesel engine training and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower diesel engine upgrades net-sum emission of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by diesel engines kits plants used to produce the fuel.

The two main diesel engines maintenance factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were diesel outboard engine their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low diesel racing engine speeds and when cold). This noise was caused by the diesel truck engines sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when duramax diesel engines injected into the combustion chamber. This noise was a product of engine rebuild stands heavy duty diesel the sudden temperature change, hence why it was more pronounced at low engine temperatures. A combination of improved mechanical technology ford diesel engine mileage (such as two-stage injectors which fire a short 'pilot charge' of ford diesel engines uk fuel into the cylinder to warm fords new 6.4l diesel engine the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel fuel injection in high power diesel engines charge) and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of gas in diesel engine the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures) have almost totally solved these problems in the latest generation gm 2 cycle diesel engines of common-rail designs. Poor power and narrow torque gm-90 diesel engine bands have been solved by the use gmc marine diesel engine of turbochargers and intercoolers.

Emissions

Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load, hispano /suiza bugatti diesel engines at injector problems with ford power stroke diesel engines which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric. However, they can isuzu diesel engine parts produce black soot (or more isuzu trooper diesel engine specifically Diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust, which consists of unburned carbon compounds. This is kiki diesel engine often caused by worn injectors, which do not atomize the fuel sufficiently, or a faulty engine management kubota diesel engine thermostat system which allows more fuel to be injected than can be burned completely in lehman diesel engines the available time.

The full load limit of a lister cs diesel engine diesel engine in normal service is defined by lister diesel engine the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely lister single cylinder diesel engines combusted; as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to love diesel engines obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient marine diesel engine inspections combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and marine diesel engine mechanic dense clouds of smoke, so this is only marine diesel engine school done in specialised applications (such as tractor marine diesel engine training pulling) where these disadvantages are of little concern.

Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or mercedes diesel engine smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially mercedes diesel truck engine in cities. Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot miniature diesel engine and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning mitsubishi diesel engine the particles. Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, mtu diesel engine weight sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now on line troubleshooting and diesel engine repair, 7.3 ford have catalytic converters in the exhaust.

Power and Torque

For commercial uses requiring towing, load perkins diesel engine fuel in oil carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have more peugeot hdi diesel engines france desirable torque characterstics. Diesel engines tend to have their power pack diesel engines torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600-2000 rpm for a shibaura diesel engines small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a lorry or truck). This provides smoother control ship diesel engines over heavy loads when starting specifications for ford 6610 diesel engine from rest, and crucially allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at ulsd in older diesel engines low speeds than a petrol/gasoline engine, which makes them much more economical for used japanese diesel engines these applications. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used kubota diesel engines used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometery volkswagen diesel engines turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of volkswagen diesel generator engine homebuilt torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500-3000 rpm.

Reliability

The lack of an electrical vw eurovan diesel engine ignition system what causes emmissions from diesel engines greatly improves the reliability. The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt what is the lifespan of a diesel engine nature (see above) as well as the diesel's combustion yanmar diesel engine parts cycle, which creates less-violent changes in pressure when compared to a spark-ignition engine, a benefit that is magnified by 1988 ford f350 7 3l diesel engine the lower rotating speeds in diesels. Diesel 4d56 turbo diesel engine fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston 7 3 diesel power stroke engine sales rings and advantages of diesel engines cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.

Unfortunately, due to the greater advantages of marine diesel engines compression force required and the increased weight of air cooled diesel engines the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task. More torque alfa romeo diesel engines is required to push the engine through compression.

Either an electrical starter or an alternative power using small diesel engines air start system is used animated diesel engine to start the engine turning. On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are backhoe hydaulic shovel diesel engine required to minimize the amount of engine black smoke from cold diesel engine damage during initial start-up and running. Some smaller military diesels can be started with an catepillar diesel engines explosive cartridge, called a kaufman starter, that provides the extra caterpillar c-7 diesel engine power required to get the machine turning. In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used caterpillar c-7 diesel engine specs a small gasoline "pony" motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor. caterpillar d398b diesel engine The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a caterpillar diesel engine small clutch and transmission to caterpiller diesel engine service florida actually spin up the diesel engine. Even more unusual was an International cdi diesel engine aircraft aeroplane Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own china diesel engines carburetor and ignition system, and started on gasoline. Once warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the motor clean diesel engine oil to diesel operation, and work combustion of fuel in diesel engines could begin. These engines had very complex cylinder heads (with their own gasoline combustion chambers) and commercial diesel engines for sale in general were vulnerable to expensive damage if special cooper bessemer diesel marine engine service manuals care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off).

As mentioned above, diesel engines tend cs lister diesel engines to have more torque at lower cummins n14 diesel engine engine speeds than gasoline engines. However, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than gasoline engines. deutz diesel engine manual repair Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack diesel cummins engine automobile power and torque at the top of their speed range. This narrow diesel engine compuer band is a reason why a vehicle such diesel engine ignition switch with preheat as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 16 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively diesel engine land speed record at all speeds. Turbochargers tend to improve power diesel engine life expectancy at high engine speeds, intercoolers do the same at lower speeds, and variable geometry turbochargers diesel engine manufacturer improve the engine's performance equally (or make diesel engine oil contamination the torque curve flatter).

Quality and variety of fuels

Petrol/gasoline engines are limited diesel engine overheat damage in the variety and quality diesel engine pics of the fuels they can burn. Older petrol engines fitted with a carburetor required a diesel engine racing power bmw 2liter volatile fuel that would vaporise easily to create the diesel engine rebuilders in nj necessary fuel/air mix for combustion. Because both air and fuel is admitted to the cylinder, if the compression ratio diesel engine repair questions of the engine is too high or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane diesel engine sale rating, the diesel engine services fuel will ignite under compression, in a similar fashion to in a diesel engine, before diesel engine using vegetable oil for fuel the piston reaches the top of its stroke. This pre-ignition diesel engine vegetable oil causes power loss and over time major damage to the piston and cylinder. The need for a fuel diesel engine water in oil that is volatile enough to vaporise but not too volatile (too avoid pre-ignition) means diesel engine water jacket heater manufacturers that petrol engines will only run on a narrow range of petroleum-based fuels.

In diesel diesel engines using vegatable oil engines, a mechanical injector system vaporises diesel engines victory the fuel (instead of a venturi jet in a carburetor as in a petrol diesel engines vs. gasoline engine). This 'forced vaporisation' means that less diesel hybrid engines volatile fuels can be used. More crucially, because only air is inducted into the cylinder in a diesel engine, the diesel marine engines compression ratio can be much higher as there is no risk of diesel model aircraft engines pre-ignition providing diesel power in model aircraft engines the injection process is accuratly timed. This means that cylinder temperatures are much diesel pump engines college in karachi pakistan higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine allowing less combustible fuels to be diesel racing engines used.

Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil, very similar to diesel truck engine kerosene but diesel engines, especially older or dodge cummins diesel engine questions simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems, can run on a wide variety of other fuels. One of the most common alternatives dodge diesel engine shutters when accelerating is vegetable oil, which dt 466 diesel engine upgrades some engines can be run on without modification, and most others require fairly effects of sugar in diesel engine basic alterations. Bio-diesel is a pure diesel fuel refined from felpro diesel engine gasket kit vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines. The only limits finnish diesel power station engines on the fuels used in diesel engines are the ability of the ford 6.4 litre powerstroke diesel engine fuel to flow along the fuel lines and the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injector pump and ford lehman 6d380 diesel engine injectors adequately.

Most large marine ford powerstroke diesel engine history diesels (often called 'cathedral engines' due to their size) run on heavy fuel oil, which is a thick, viscous ford trucks with catepillar diesel engines and almost un-flammable fuel which is cheap fuel mileage diesel vs gas engines to buy in bulk and safe to store. The fuel gm 6.5 diesel engine must be heated to thin it out and is h. o. r. diesel submarine engines often passed through multiple injection stages to vaporise it.

Dieseling in spark-ignition engines

A gasoline (spark ignition) engine how can diesel engines run backward can sometimes act as a compression ignition engine under abnormal circumstances, a phenomenon typically described as "pinging" how do turbo diesel engines work or "pinking" (during normal running) or "dieseling" (when the engine continues to run how to rebuild a diesel engine for a 350 john deer dozer after the electrical ignition system is shut how to tune up a diesel engine off). This is usually caused by hot hydrogen use in diesel engines on dual fuel mode carbon deposits within the combustion chamber that act as would a i put diesel fuel in my gasoline auto engine "glow plug" within a diesel or model aircraft engine. Excessive heat can also be international 7.3 diesel engine caused by improper ignition timing and/or fuel/air ratio which in turn overheats the exposed portions of the spark plug within the international diesel engine diagram jeep liberty with diesel engine combustion chamber. Finally, high-compression engines that require high octane fuel may knock when a lower-octane fuel is used.

Fuel and fluid characteristics

Main article: Diesel

Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels, depending on configuration, though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. Good-quality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol. Biodiesel is growing in popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines, though production remains limited. Petroleum-derived diesel is often called "petrodiesel" if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel.

The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distilates, from compressed natural gas, alcohols, gasolene, to the "fuel oils" from diesel oil to residual fuels. The type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements, and fuel costs.

"Residual fuels" are the "dregs" of the distilation process and are a thicker, heavier oil, or oil with higher viscosity, which are so thick that they are not readily pumpable unless heated. Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean, refined diesel oil, although they are dirtier. Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large generation sets, due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed, frequently amounting to many tonnes per hour. The poorly refined biofuels straight vegetable oil (SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category. Moving beyond that, use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems. Most diesel engines that power ships like supertankers are built so that the engine can safely use low grade fuels.

Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite than gasoline because of its higher flash point, but once burning, a diesel fire can be fierce.

Diesel applications

The vast majority of modern heavy road vehicles (trucks), ships, large-scale portable power generators, most farm and mining vehicles, and many long-distance locomotives have diesel engines. See dieselisation

Besides their use in merchant ships and boats, there is also a naval advantage in the relative safety of diesel fuel, additional to improved range over a gasoline engine. The German "pocket battleships" were the largest diesel warships, but the German torpedo-boat called "Schnellboot" of the Second World War was also a diesel craft. Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World War. It was an advantage of American diesel-electric submarines that they operated a two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used.

Mercedes-Benz, cooperating with Robert Bosch GmbH, has a successful run of diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, sold in many parts of the World, with other manufacturers joining in the 1970s and 1980s. The second car manufacturer was Peugeot, prior to 1960.

In the United States, probably due to some hastily offered cars in the 1980s, diesel is not as popular in passenger vehicles as in Europe. Such cars have been traditionally perceived as heavier, noisier, having performance characteristics which make them slower to accelerate, and of being more expensive than equivalent gasoline vehicles. General Motors Oldsmobile division produced a variation of its gasoline-powered V8 engine which is the main reason for this reputation. This image certainly does not reflect recent designs, especially where the very high low-rev torque of modern diesels is concerned — which have characteristics similar to the big V8 gasoline engines popular in the US. Light and heavy trucks, in the U.S., have been diesel-optioned for years.

European governments tend to favor diesel engines in taxation policy because of diesel's superior fuel efficiency. In addition, diesel fuel used in North America still has higher sulphur content than the fuel used in Europe, effectively limiting diesel use to industrial vehicles, before the introduction of 15 parts per million ultra-low sulfur diesel, which will start at 15 October 2006 in the U.S. (1 June 2006 in Canada). Ultra-low sulfur diesel is not mandatory until 2010 in the US.

Mercedes Benz MBE 4000 truck engine, 350-450 hp (261-336 kW)

In Europe, where tax rates in many countries make diesel fuel much cheaper than gasoline, diesel vehicles are very popular and newer designs have significantly narrowed differences between petrol and diesel vehicles in the areas mentioned. Often, among comparably designated models, the Turbo-Diesels outperform their naturally aspirated petrol-powered sister cars. One anecdote tells of Formula One driver Jenson Button, who was arrested while driving a diesel-powered BMW 330cd Coupé at 230 km/h (about 140 mph) in France, where he was too young to have a gasoline-engined car hired to him. Button dryly observed in subsequent interviews that he had actually done BMW a public relations service, as nobody had believed a diesel could be driven that fast. Yet, BMW had already won the 24 Hours Nürburgring overall in 1998 with a 3-series diesel. The BMW diesel lab in Steyr, Austria is led by Ferenc Anisits and develops innovative diesel engines.

Mercedes-Benz, offering diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, has put the emphasis on high performance diesel cars in its newer ranges, as does Volkswagen with its brands. Citroën sells more cars with diesel engines than gasoline engines, as the French brands (also Peugeot) pioneered smoke-less HDI designs with filters. Even the Italian marque Alfa Romeo, known for design and successful history in racing, focuses on Diesels that are also raced.

A few motorcycles have been built using diesel engines, but the weight and cost disadvantages generally outweigh the efficiency gains in this application.

High-speed
High-speed (approximately 1200 rpm and greater) engines are used to power trucks (lorries), buses, tractors, cars, yachts, compressors, pumps and small generators.
Medium-speed
Large electrical generators are driven by medium speed engines, (approximately 300 to 1200 rpm) optimised to run at a set speed and provide a rapid response to load changes.
Low-speed
The largest diesel engines are used to power ships. These monstrous engines have power outputs over 80MW, turn at about 60 to 100 rpm, and are up to 15 m tall. They often run on cheap low-grade fuel, which require extra heat treatment in the ship for tanking and before injection due to their low volatility. Companies such as Burmeister & Wain and Wärtsilä (e.g., Sulzer Diesels) design such large low speed engines. They are unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. Today (2006), the 12 cylinder MAN B&W Diesel K98MC turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine build by MAN B&W Diesel licencee Hyundai Heavy Industries in Korea is the most powerful diesel engine put into service, with a cylinder bore of 980 mm delivering 74.8 MW (101,640 bhp). When put into service in 2007, the 14 cylinder Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C will become the most powerful diesel engine with 80 MW (110,000 hp).

Unusual applications

Aircraft

Main article: aircraft diesel engine

The zeppelins Graf Zeppelin II and Hindenburg were propelled by reversible diesel engines. The direction of operation was changed by shifting gears on the camshaft. From full power forward, the engines could be brought to a stop, changed over, and brought to full power in reverse in less than 60 seconds.

Diesel engines were first tried in aircraft in the 1930s. A number of manufacturers built engines, the best known probably being the Junkers Jumo 205, which was moderately successful, but proved unsuitable for combat use in WWII. Postwar, another interesting proposal was the complex Napier Nomad. In general, though, the lower power-to-weight ratio of diesels, particularly compared to kerosene-powered turboprop engines, has precluded their use in this application.

The very high cost of avgas in Europe, and the advances in automotive diesel technology, have seen renewed interest in the concept. New, certified diesel-powered light planes are already available, and a number of other companies are also developing new engine and aircraft designs for the purpose. Many of these run on the readily-available jet fuel, or can run on both jet fuel or conventional automotive diesel.

Automobile racing

Although the weight and lower output of a diesel engine tend to keep them away from automotive racing applications, there are many diesels being raced in classes that call for them, mainly in truck racing and tractor pulling, as well in types of racing where these drawbacks are less severe, such as land speed record racing or endurance racing. Even Diesel engined dragsters exist, despite the diesel's drawbacks being central to performance in this sport.

1931 - Clessie Cummins installs his Diesel in a race car. It runs at 162 km/h in Daytona, and 138 km/h in Indianapolis where it places 12th. [2]

In 1933, A 1925 Bentley with a Gardner 4LW engine was the first diesel-engined car to take part in the Monte Carlo Rally when it was driven by Lord Howard de Clifford. It was the leading British car and finished fifth overall. [3]

In 1952, Cummins Diesel won the pole at the Indianapolis 500 race with a supercharged 3 liter diesel car, relying on torque and fuel efficiency to overcome weight and low peak power, and led most of the race until the badly situated air intake of the car swallowed enough debris from the track to disable the car.

With turbocharged Diesel-cars getting stronger in the 1990s, they were also entered in touring car racing, and BMW even won the 24 Hours Nürburgring in 1998 with a 320d, against other factory-entered Diesel-competition of Volkswagen and about 200 normally powered cars. Alfa Romeo even organized a racing series with their Alfa Romeo 147 1.9 JTD models.

The VW Dakar Rally entrants for 2005 and 2006 are powered by their own line of TDI engines in order to challenge for the first overall diesel win there. Meanwhile, the five time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Audi R8 race car was replaced by the Audi R10 in 2006, which is powered by a 650 hp (485 kW) and 1100 N·m (810 lbf·ft) V12 TDI Common Rail diesel engine, mated to a 5-speed gearbox, instead of the 6 used in the R8, to handle the extra torque produced. The gearbox is considered the main problem, as earlier attempts by others failed due to the lack of suitable transmissons that could stand the torque long enough.

After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their Diesel-powered R10, Audi obtained the overall win at the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, too. This is the first time a sports car can compete for overall victories with Diesel-fuel against cars powered with regular fuel or methanol and bio-ethanol. However, the significance of this is slightly lessened by the fact that the ACO/ALMS race rules encourage the use of alternate fuels such as diesel.

Motorcycles

With a traditionally poor power-to-weight ratio, diesel engines are generally unsuited to use in a motorcycle, which requires high power, light weight and a fast-revving engine. However, in the 1980s NATO forces in Europe standardised all their vehicles to diesel power. Some had fleets of motorcycles, and so trials were conducted with diesel engines for these. Air-cooled single-cylinder engines built by Lombardini of Italy were used and had some success, achieving similar performance to petrol bikes and fuel usage of nearly 200 miles per gallon. This led to some countries re-fitting their bikes with diesel power.

Development by Cranfield University and California-based Hayes Diversified Technologies led to the production of a diesel powered off road motorbike based on the running gear of a Kawasaki KLR650 petrol-engine trail bike for military use. The engine of the diesel motorcycle is a liquid cooled, single cylinder four- stroke which displaces 584 cm³ and produces 21 kw (28 bhp) with a top speed of 85mph (136kph). Hayes Diversified Technologies mooted, but has subsequently delayed, the delivery of a civilian version for approx USD$19,000. Expensive compared to comparable models.

In 2005 the United States Marine Corps adopted the M1030M1, a dirtbike based on the Kawasaki KLR650 and modified with an engine designed to run on diesel or JP8 jet fuel. Since other U.S. tactical vehicles like the Humvee utility vehicle and M1 Abrams tank use JP8, adopting a scout motorcycle which runs on the same fuels made sense from a logistical standpoint.

In India, motorcycles built by Royal Enfield can be bought with 650cc single-cylinder diesel engines based on the similar petrol engines used, due to the fact that diesel is much cheaper than petrol and of more reliable quality. These engines are noisy and unrefined, but very popular due to their reliability and economy.

Current and future developments

Already, many common rail and unit injection systems employ new injectors using stacked piezoelectric crystals in lieu of a solenoid, which gives finer control of the injection event.

Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes, which move and let more air into the engine depending on load. This technology increases both performance and fuel economy. Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for.

A technique called accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses a sensor called an accelerometer to provide feedback on the engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required power (especially while idling.)

The next generation of common rail diesels are expected to use variable injection geometry, which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range, and variable valve timing similar to that on gasoline engines.

Particularly in the United States, coming tougher emissions regulations present a considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers. Other methods to achieve even more efficient combustion, such as HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition), are being studied.

Modern diesel facts

(Source: Robert Bosch GmbH)

Main article: Common rail

Fuel passes through the injector jets at speeds of nearly 1500 miles per hour (2400 km/h) – as fast as the top speed of a jet plane.

Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber in less than 1.5 ms – about as long as a camera flash.

The smallest quantity of fuel injected is one cubic millimetre – about the same volume as the head of a pin. The largest injection quantity at the moment for automobile diesel engines is around 70 cubic millimetres.

If the camshaft of a six-cylinder engine is turning at 4500 rpm, the injection system has to control and deliver 225 injection cycles per second.

On a demonstration drive, a Volkswagen 1-litre diesel-powered car used only 0.89 litres of fuel in covering 100 kilometres (264 mpg {US}, 317 mpg {Imperial/English}) – making it probably the most fuel-efficient car in the world. Bosch’s high-pressure fuel injection system was one of the main factors behind the prototype’s extremely low fuel consumption. Production record-breakers in fuel economy include the Volkswagen Lupo 3 L TDI and the Audi A2 3 L 1.2 TDi with standard consumption figures of 3 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres (78 mpg {US}, 94 mpg {Imperial}). Their high-pressure diesel injection systems are also supplied by Bosch.

In 2001, nearly 36% of newly registered cars in Western Europe had diesel engines. By way of comparison: in 1996, diesel-powered cars made up only 15% of the new car registrations in Germany. Austria leads the league table of registrations of diesel-powered cars with 66%, followed by Belgium with 63% and Luxembourg with 58%. Germany, with 34.6% in 2001, was in the middle of the league table. Sweden is lagging behind, in 2004 only 8% of the new cars had diesel engine.

See also: Injection pump

Diesel car history

The first production diesel cars were the Mercedes-Benz 260D and the Hanomag Rekord, both introduced in 1936. The Citroën Rosalie was also produced between 1935 and 1937 with an extremely rare diesel engine option (the 1766 cc 11UD engine) only in the Familiale (estate or station wagon) version. [4]

Following the 1970s oil crisis, turbo diesels were tested, e. g. by the Mercedes-Benz C111 experimental and record-setting vehicles. The first production turbo diesel car was, in 1978, the 3.0 5-cyl 115 PS Mercedes 300 SD, available only in North America. In Europe, the Peugeot 604 with a 2.3 litre turbo diesel was introduced in 1979, and then the Mercedes 300 TD turbo.

Many Audi enthusiasts claim that the Audi 100 TDI was the first turbo charged direct injection diesel sold in 1989, but actually it isn't true, as the Fiat Croma TD-i.d. was sold with turbo direct injection in 1986 and 2 years later Austin Rover Montego.

What was pioneering about the Audi 100 however was the use of electronic control of the engine, as the Fiat and Austin had purely mechanically controlled injection. The electronic control of direct injection really made a difference in terms of emissions, refinement and power.

It's interesting to see that the big players in the diesel car market are the same ones who pioneered various developments (Mercedes, BMW, Peugeot/Citroën, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, VW/Audi/SEAT/Skoda), with the exception of Austin Rover.

In 1998, for the very first time in the history of racing, in the legendary 24 Hours Nürburgring race, a diesel-powered car was the overall winner: the BMW works team 320d, a BMW E36 fitted with modern high-pressure diesel injection technology from Robert Bosch GmbH. The low fuel consumption and long range, allowing 4 hours of racing at once, made it a winner, as comparable petrol-powered cars spent more time refuelling.

In 2006, the new Audi R10 TDI LMP1 entered by Joest Racing became the first Diesel-engined car to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The winning car also bettered the post-1990 course configuration lap record by 1, at 380. However, this fell short of the all-time distance record set in 1971 by over 200 km.

See also

  • Elsbett - An improved multi-fuel diesel engine design
  • Junkers Jumo 205 - The most successful of the first series of production diesel aircraft engines.
  • Napier Deltic - A high-speed, lightweight (about 4 tons) diesel engine used in fast naval craft and some railway locomotives.
  • SVO - Straight Vegetable Oil - Alternative fuel for diesel engines.
  • Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C - World's most powerful, most efficient and largest diesel engine.
  • WVO - Waste Vegetable Oil - Filtered, alternative fuel for diesel engines.

External links

  • Cummins Racing, home of the world's fastest diesel dragster...
  • Details on Atlas Imperial
  • New stationary diesel engine requirements
  • Deutz engines
  • History of Bolinder Engines
  • Diesel generators guide
  • Diesel motorcycles from HDT
  • Alternative Diesel Fuels - Tutorial on using renewable biofuels in a diesel engine
  • GoodGrease.com Diesel engines and vegetable oil. Resources, forums, howtos, links.
  • Diesel generator power calculator
  • - 28k History of Caterpillar
  • HowStuffWorks Article
  • Isuzuengines.com - The largest industrial diesel engine manufacturer in the world
  • News story on tax duty irregularities on using alternative vegetable oil to fuel your diesel engine
  • The Most Powerful Diesel Engine in the World
  • The world's most powerful diesel engine put into service
  • U.S. Patent 608845
  • Very Early Marine Engines; various builders
  • Discussion on the very first diesel ships
  • Tata Motors is the largest Indian manufacturer of diesel engine based commercial and passenger vehicles. India's first indigenously developed car, Tata Indica was developed by them.
  • Engine Excitation Mechanisms Reference page with equations on diracdelta.co.uk

Sources

L. Cummins Jr., Diesel's Engine—From Conception to 1918. Carnot Press. 1993

Search Term: "Diesel_engine"

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