Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature
The carburetor, carburettor, or carburetter (see carter carburator spelling differences), also called carb (in North America) or carbie (chiefly in Australia) for carter carburetors short, is a device that mixes carter carburetor air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. It was invented by Hungarian scientists Donát Bánki and János carter afb carburetor Csonka in 1893. Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles such as those designed carter bbd carburetor adjustments for stock car racing. However, fuel injection, first introduced in the late 1950s and carter carburetor corporation first carter carburetor air bleeds successfully commercialized in the early 1970s, is now the preferred method of automotive fuel delivery. The majority carter carburetor model bbr in canada of motorcycles still are carburated due to lower weight and cost, but rochester carter carburetor cross ref as of 2005 many new models are now being carter afb carburetor adjustment introduced with fuel injection.
Most carbureted (as opposed to fuel-injected) engines have a single carburetor, though some engines use carter carburetor identification multiple carburetors. Older engines used updraft carburetors, where the air enters from below the carburetor carter yh carburetor diagram and exits through the top. This had the advantage of never "flooding" the engine, carter carburetor rebuild kit as any liquid fuel droplets would fall out of carter carburetor troubleshooting the carburetor instead of into the intake manifold; it also lent itself to use of an oil bath air carter carburetors for sale cleaner, where a pool carter tractor carburetor of oil below a mesh element below the carburetor is sucked up into the mesh and the air is drawn through the oil covered how do i tune a carter bbd carburetor mesh; this was an effective system in a time how to tune a carter bbd carburetor when paper air filters did not exist. Beginning in the late 1930s, downdraft carburetors 1963 carter carburetors were the most popular type for automotive use in the United States. In Europe, the sidedraft carter afb 4 barrel carburetor jet ajustment help carburettors replaced downdraft as free space in the carter carburetor adjustment engine bay decreased and the use of the SU-type carburetor (and similar units from other manufacturers) increased. carter carburetor kit Small propeller-driven flat aircraft engines still use the updraft carter carburetor model numbers carburetor design.
The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the fact that adjusting barrel carburetor carter single instructions moving air has lower pressure than still air, and that carter afb 625 carburetor the faster the movement of the air, the lower the pressure. The throttle or accelerator does not carter carburetor circuitry control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it controls the amount of air that flows through the carburetor. Faster 1959 60 61 ford mercury lincoln carter carburetor nice flows of air and more air entering adjusting a carter afb carburetor the carburetor draws more fuel into the carburetor due to the partial vacuum that is created.
- 1 Operation
- 1.1 Basics
- 1.2 Off-idle carter afb 4 barrel carburetor circuit
- 1.3 Main carter afb 4 barrel carburetor tech help open-throttle circuit
- 1.4 Power valve
- 1.5 Accelerator pump
- 1.6 Choke
- 1.7 Other carter afb carburetor vacum adjustments elements
- 2 Fuel supply
- 3 Multiple carburetor carter bbd carburetor barrels
- 4 Carburetor carter yh carburetor adjustment
- 5 History and development
- 6 Catalytic carburetors
- 7 Manufacturers
- 8 Further pictute of carter bbd carburetor reading
Carburetors are either:
- Fixed Venturi, in which the varying air velocity in the venturi alters the fuel flow; this architecture is carburetor adjustment carter employed in most downdraft carburetors found carter afb 4312s carburetor on American and some Japanese cars
- Variable Venturi, in which the fuel jet opening is varied by the carter bbd carburetor tuning slide (which simultaneously alters air flow). In "constant depression" carburetors, this is done by a vacuum carter bbd carburetor vacuum diagram operated piston connected to a tapered needle which slides inside the carter carburetor corp fuel jet. A simpler version carter carburetor kit rebuild exists, most commonly found on small motorcycles and dirt bikes, where the slide and needle is directly controlled carter carburetor kits by the throttle position. These types of carburetors are commonly equipped with accelerator pumps to make up for a particular carter carburetor numbers instructions shortcoming of this design. The most common variable venturi (constant depression) type carter carburetor rebuild kit online carburetor is the sidedraft SU carburetor and similar carter carburetor rebuild kit repair models from Hitachi, Zenith-Stromberg and other makers. The UK location of the SU and Zenith-Stromberg companies helped these carter model bb bbr1 carburetor carburettors rise to a position of domination carter w1 carburetor in the UK car market, though such carburetors were cushman carter carburetor n also very widely used on Volvos and other non-UK makes. Other similar designs are used on some European and a few Japanese how to tune a carter bbl carburetor automobiles.
The carburetor must under all engine operating conditions:
- Measure the airflow of the engine
- Deliver the correct model bbr-1 700s carter carburetor amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture in the proper range (adjusting picture of a carter afb 4bbl carburetor for factors such as temperature)
- Mix the tuning carter bbd carburetor two finely and evenly
This job would be simple if air bbd carter carburetor rebuild information and petrol (gasoline) were ideal fluids; in practice, however, their deviations carter 1114 carburetor from ideal behavior due to viscosity, fluid drag, inertia, etc. require a great deal of complexity to compensate at exceptionally high or low carter 4139s 4140s carburetors engine speeds. A carter afb competition series carburetors carburetor must provide the proper fuel/air mixture across a wide range of ambient temperatures, atmospheric pressures, engine speeds and carter bbd 4606s carburetor loads, and centrifugal forces:
- Cold start
- Hot start
- Idling or slow-running
- High speed / high power at carter carburetor 8145s full throttle
- Cruising at part throttle (light load)
In addition, modern carburetors are required carter carburetor blueprints to do this while maintaining low rates of exhaust emissions.
To function correctly under all these conditions, carter carburetor diagram repair most carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to support several different operating modes, carter carburetor diagrams called circuits.
Cross Sectional schematic of a Carburetor
A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe, a "throat" or "barrel" through carter carburetor vacume lines which the air passes into carter model n carburetor kit the inlet manifold of the engine. The pipe is in the form carter thermo-quad carburetor of a venturi — it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below carter wcfb carburetor used carter yf carburetor online the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle — a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to carter yfa non feedback carburetor the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be fix carter carburetor rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of how to tune a bbd carter carburetor air through rebuilt carter carburetor used the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. willys carter carburetors The throttle is connected, usually through a cable 1953 1954 corvette carter sidedraft carburetor manual or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control 6-431 carter carburetor desoto on other vehicles or adjust a carter bbd carburetor equipment.
Fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi. Fuel adjusting barrel carburetor carter single cleaning flow in response to a particular pressure drop in the venturi is adjusted by means adjusting barrel carburetor carter single used of precisely-calibrated orifices, referred to as jets, in the fuel path.
As the throttle is opened up slightly from the fully closed position, adjustment bbd carburetor carter repair the throttle plate uncovers additional fuel delivery holes behind adjustment bbd carburetor carter used the throttle plate where there is a low pressure area created by the throttle afb carburetor carter cleaning plate blocking air flow; these allow more fuel to flow as well as compensating for afb carter carburetor the reduced vacuum that occurs when the throttle is opened, thus smoothing the transition to auto carter yfa carburetor technical manual metering fuel flow through the regular open throttle circuit.
Main open-throttle auto carter yfa non feedback carburetor circuit
As the throttle is progressively opened, the manifold vacuum reduces since there carburetor carter is less restriction on the airflow, reducing the flow through the carburetor carter identification idle and off-idle circuits. This is where the venturi shape of the carburetor throat comes into play, carburetor carter model n due to Bernoulli's carburetor carter online principle (i.e. as the velocity increases, pressure falls). The venturi (sometimes carburetor carter rebuilding cleaning a second or "booster" venturi is placed inside the venturi shaped into the carburetor throat to increase carter 1 barrel carburetor the effect) raises the air velocity, and this high speed and thus low pressure sucks fuel into the airstream through carter 2-barrel carburetor models a nozzle located in the center of the venturi.
As the throttle carter afb 4312s carburetor specs is closed, the airflow through the venturi drops until the lowered pressure is carter afb carburetor adjustments insufficient to maintain this fuel flow, and the idle circuit takes over carter afb carburetor edelbrock again, as described above.
For open throttle operation a richer mixture will produce more power, prevent carter afb carburetor repair detonation, and keep the engine cooler. This is usually addressed with carter afb carburetor repair kits a spring loaded "power valve", which is held shut by carter afb competition series carburetor engine vacuum. As the throttle carter afb marine carburetors opens up, engine vacuum decreases and the spring opens the valve to let more fuel into the carter avs carburetor repair main circuit. On two-stroke engines, the operation of the power valve carter bbd carburetor idle screws is the reverse of normal - it is normally "on" and at a set rpm it is turned "off". It is activated carter bbd carburetor instructions at high rpm to extend the carter bbd carburetor repair engine's rev range, capitalizing on a two-stroke's tendency to rev higher momentarily when the mixture is lean.
The greater inertia of liquid gasoline, compared to air, means that if the throttle is suddenly carter bbs carburetor opened, the airflow will carter carburetor 1954 dodge increase more rapidly than the fuel flow, causing a carter carburetor and el camino temporary "lean" condition which causes the engine to "stumble" under acceleration (the opposite of what is normally intended when the throttle is carter carburetor cleaning opened). This is remedied by carter carburetor company the use of a small mechanical pump, usually either a plunger or diaphragm type actuated by the throttle linkage, which propels a carter carburetor diagram small amount of gasoline through a jet, wherefrom it carter carburetor diagram online is injected into the carburetor throat. This extra shot of fuel counteracts the transient lean condition carter carburetor diagram used on throttle tip-in. Most accelerator pumps are adjustable for carter carburetor for outboard motor volume and/or duration by some means. Eventually the seals around carter carburetor identification rebuild the moving parts of the pump wear such that pump output is reduced; this reduction of the accelerator carter carburetor identification repair pump shot causes stumbling under acceleration until the seals carter carburetor identification used on the pump are renewed.
The accelerator pump is also used to prime the engine with fuel prior to a cold start. Excessive priming, carter carburetor illistrations like an carter carburetor information improperly-adjusted choke, can cause flooding. This is when too much fuel and carter carburetor kit online not enough air are present to support combustion. For this reason, carburetors are carter carburetor manuals equipped with an unloader mechanism: The accelerator is held to the full extent of carter carburetor model bbr its travel while the engine is cranked, the unloader holds the choke open and admits extra carter carburetor model n air, and eventually the excess fuel is cleared out and the engine starts.
When the engine is cold, fuel vaporizes carter carburetor n less readily and tends to condense on the walls of the intake carter carburetor needle valve adjustment manifold, carter carburetor numbers rebuild starving the cylinders of fuel and making the engine difficult to start; thus, a richer mixture (more fuel to air) carter carburetor online is required to start and run the engine until it warms up.
To provide the extra fuel, a choke is carter carburetor part used typically used; this is a device that restricts the flow of air carter carburetor rebuild kit used at the entrance carter carburetor springs to the carburetor, before the venturi. With this restriction in place, extra vacuum is developed in the carburetor barrel, which pulls extra fuel carter carburetor yf through the main carter climatic carburetor choke metering system to supplement the fuel being pulled from the idle and off-idle circuits. This carter competition series carburetor online provides the rich mixture required to sustain operation at low engine temperatures.
In addition, the choke is connected to carter competition series carburetor rebuild a "fast idle cam" or other such device which prevents the carter marine carburetor throttle from closing fully, which could carter nd 2984s carburetor starve the venturis of vacuum and cause the engine to stall. This also serves as a way to help the engine warm carter one barrel carburetor enginering up quickly by idling it at a higher than normal speed. In addition, it increases carter rakxo carburetor airflow throughout the carter rbs carburetor instructions intake system which helps to better atomize the cold fuel and smooth out the idle.
In older carter rbs carburetor rebuild carbureted cars, the choke was controlled by a cable connected to a pull-knob on the dashboard (GB — facia) operated by the carter side draft carburetor driver. In most carbureted cars produced from the mid 1960s onward carter wcfb carburetor instructions (mid 1950s in the United States) it is usually automatically controlled by a carter wcfb carburetors thermostat employing a bimetallic spring, which is exposed to engine carter y carburetor ford float adjustment heat. This heat may be transferred to the carter yf carburetor cleaning choke thermostat via simple convection, via engine coolant, or via air heated by the exhaust. More recent designs use the engine heat only carter yfa carburetor overhaul indirectly: A carter yfa carburetor parts sensor detects engine heat and varies electrical current to a small heating element, which acts upon the carter yh carburetor adjustment bimetallic spring to control its tension, thereby controlling the choke. A choke unloader is a linkage arrangement that forces diagram of a 1958 buick carter carburetor the choke open against its instructions on tuning a carter carburetor spring when the vehicle's accelerator is moved to the end of its travel. This provision allows a jeep carter carburetor tuning "flooded" engine to be cleared jeep cj wrangler 258 carburetor carb carter bbd rebuilt out so that it will start.
Some carburetors do not have a choke but instead use a mixture enrichment circuit, obsolete carter carburetor kits or enrichener. Typically used on small engines, notably motorcycles, enricheners work by opening a secondary fuel circuit below the throttle prices of carter carburetor valves. This circuit works exactly like the idle circuit, and when engaged it rebuilt carter carburetor online simply supplies extra fuel when rebuilt carter carburetor rebuild the throttle is closed.
Classic British motorcycles, with side-draft small engine obsolete carter carburetor kits slide throttle carburetors, used another type of "cold start device", called a "tickler". This is simply a spring-loaded rod that, when depressed, manually pushes the float down and allows excess fuel to fill the float bowl and flood the intake tract. If the "tickler" was held down too long it also flooded the outside of the carburetor and the crankcase below, and was therefore a fire hazard.
The interactions between each circuit may also be affected by various mechanical or air pressure connections and also by temperature sensitive and electrical components. These are introduced for reasons such as response, fuel efficiency or automobile emissions control. Various air bleeds (often chosen from a precisely calibrated range, similarly to the jets) allow air into various portions of the fuel passages to enhance fuel delivery and vaporization. Extra refinements may be included in the carburetor/manifold combination, such as some form of heating to aid fuel vaporization. .
To ensure a ready supply of fuel, the carburetor has a "float chamber" (or "bowl") that contains a quantity of fuel at near-atmospheric pressure, ready for use. This reservoir is constantly replenished with fuel supplied by a fuel pump. The correct fuel level in the bowl is maintained by means of a float controlling an inlet valve, in a manner very similar to that employed in toilet tanks. As fuel is used up, the float drops, opening the inlet valve and admitting fuel. As the fuel level rises, the float rises and closes the inlet valve. The level of fuel maintained in the float bowl can usually be adjusted, whether by a setscrew or by something crude such as bending the arm to which the float is connected. This is usually a critical adjustment, and the proper adjustment is indicated by lines scribed into a window on the float bowl, or a measurement of how far the float hangs below the top of the carburetor when disassembled, or similar. Floats can be made of different materials, such as sheet brass soldered into a hollow shape, or of plastic; hollow floats can spring small leaks and plastic floats can eventually become porous and lose their flotation; in either case the float will fail to float, fuel level will be too high, and the engine will not run well unless the float is replaced. The valve itself becomes worn on its sides by its motion in its "seat" and will eventually try to close at an angle, and thus fails to shut off the fuel completely; again, this will cause excessive fuel flow and poor engine operation. Conversely, as the fuel evaporates from the float bowl, it leaves sediment, residue, and varnishes behind, which clog the passages and can interfere with the float operation. This is particularly a problem in automobiles operated for only part of the year and left to stand with full float chambers for months at a time; commercial fuel stabilizer additives are available that reduce this problem.
Usually, special vent tubes allow air to escape from the chamber as it fills or enter as it empties, maintaining atmospheric pressure within the float chamber; these usually extend into the carburetor throat. Placement of these vent tubes can be somewhat critical to prevent fuel from sloshing out of them into the carburetor, and sometimes they are modified with longer tubing. Note that this leaves the fuel at atmospheric pressure, and therefore it cannot travel into a throat which has been pressurized by a supercharger mounted upstream; in such cases, the entire carburetor must be contained in an airtight pressurized box to operate. This is not necessary in installations where the carburetor is mounted upstream of the supercharger, which is for this reason the more frequent system. However, this results in the supercharger being filled with compressed fuel/air mixture, with a strong tendency to explode should the engine backfire; this type of explosion is frequently seen in drag races, which for safety reasons now incorporate pressure releasing blow-off plates on the intake manifold, breakaway bolts holding the supercharger to the manifold, and shrapnel-catching ballistic nylon blankets surrounding the superchargers.
If the engine must be operated in any orientation (for example a chain saw), a float chamber cannot work. Instead, a diaphragm chamber is used. A flexible diaphragm forms one side of the fuel chamber and is arranged so that as fuel is drawn out into the engine the diaphragm is forced inward by ambient air pressure. The diaphragm is connected to the needle valve and as it moves inward it opens the needle valve to admit more fuel, thus replenishing the fuel as it is consumed. As fuel is replenished the diaphragm moves out due to fuel pressure and a small spring, closing the needle valve. A balanced state is reached which creates a steady fuel reservoir level, which remains constant in any orientation.
Multiple carburetor barrels
Colombo Type 125 "Testa Rossa" engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder with 6 Weber 2-barrel carburetors intaking air through 12 "trumpets" visible on top of the engine, one individually adjustable barrel for each cylinder; the ultimate in tunability.
While low performance carburetors may have only one barrel, most carburetors have more than one venturi, or "barrel", most commonly a two barrel, with 4 barrels being common in higher performance larger displacement engines, to accommodate the higher air flow rate with larger engine displacement. Multi-barrel carburetors can have non-identical primary and secondary barrel(s) of different sizes and calibrated to deliver different air/fuel mixtures; they can be actuated by the linkage or by engine vacuum in "progressive" fashion, so that the secondary barrels do not begin to open until the primaries are almost completely open. This is a desirable characteristic which maximizes airflow through the primary barrel(s) at most engine speeds, thereby maximizing the pressure "signal" from the venturis, but reduces the restriction in airflow at high speeds by adding cross-sectional area for greater airflow. These advantages may not be important in high-performance applications where part throttle operation is irrelevant, and the primaries and secondaries may all open at once, for simplicity and reliability; also, V configuration engines, with two cylinder banks fed by a single carburetor, may be configured with two identical barrels, each supplying one cylinder bank. In the widely seen V8 and 4-barrel carburetor combination, there are often two primary and two secondary barrels.
Multiple carburetors can be mounted on a single engine, often with progressive linkages; three two barrel carburetors were frequently seen on high performance American V8s, and multiple four barrel carburetors are often now seen on very high performance engines.
Too much fuel in the fuel-air mixture is referred to as too rich, and not enough fuel is too lean. The mixture is normally adjusted by one or more needle valves on an automotive carburetor, or a pilot-operated lever on piston-engined aircraft (since mixture is air density (altitude) dependent). The (stoichiometric) air to gasoline ratio is 14.7:1, meaning that for each weight unit of gasoline, 14.7 units of air will be consumed. Stoichiometric mixture are different for various fuels other than gasoline.
Carburetor adjustment can be checked by measuring the carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxygen content of the exhaust gases.
The mixture can also be judged by the state and color of the spark plugs: black, dry sooty plugs indicate a too rich mixture, white to light gray deposits on the plugs indicate a lean mixture. The correct color should be a brownish gray. See also reading spark plugs.
In the early 1980s, many American-market vehicles used special "feedback" carburetors that could change the base mixture in response to signals from an exhaust gas Oxygen sensor. These were mainly used to save costs (since they worked well enough to meet 1980s emissions requirements and were based on existing carburetor designs), but eventually disappeared as falling hardware prices and tighter emissions standards made fuel injection a standard item.
History and development
The carburetor was invented by the Hungarian engineer Donát Bánki in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, England experimented early on with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896 Frederick and his brother built the first petrol driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp (4 kW) internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a two cylinder horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. This version completed a 1,000 mile (1600 km) tour in 1900 successfully incorporating the carburetor as an important step forward in automotive engineering.
The word carburetor comes from the French carbure, meaning 'carbide' . To carburete means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon (and therefore energy) content of a fuel by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon.
A catalytic carburetor mixes fuel fumes with water and air in the presence of heated catalysts such as nickel or platinum. This breaks the fuel down into methane, alcohols, and other lighter-weight fuels. The original catalytic carburetor was introduced to permit farmers to run tractors from modified and enriched kerosene. The U.S. Army also used catalytic carburetors with great success in World War II, in the North African desert campaign.
While catalytic carburetors were made commercially available in the early 1930's, two major factors limited their widespread public use. First, the addition of additives to commercial gasoline made it unsuitable for use in engines with catalytic carburetors (tetraethyl lead was introduced in 1932 to raise gasoline's resistance to spontaneous combustion, thereby permitting the use of higher compression ratios). Second, the economic advantage of using kerosene over gasoline faded in the 1930's, eliminating the catalytic carburetor's primary advantage.
Some manufacturers of carburetors are/were
- Amal Ltd, UK chiefly motorcycle carburettors.
- Argelite, producer of Holley and Magneti-Marelli carburetors for the Argentine market
- Autolite, a division of the Ford Motor Company from 1967 to 1973.
- Bendix Stromberg and Bendix Technico carburetors, used on vehicles made by Chrysler, IHC, Ford, GM, AMC, and Studebaker
- Bing Carburetor (used on motorcycles, mopeds, aircraft, boats)
- Briggs & Stratton, small engines (e.g. powered mowers)
- Carter carburetor, (used on numerous makes of vehicles, including those made by Chrysler, IHC, Ford, GM, AMC, and Studebaker, as well as on industrial and agricultural equipment and small engines
- Dell'Orto carburetors from Italy, used on cars and motorcycles
- Edelbrock AVS Carburetors
- Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi carburetors, found on Japanese automobiles
- Holley, with usage as broad as Carter and Weber.
- Keihin, also common on Japanese and other motorcycles
- Lectron carburators
- Mikuni, common on Japanese motorcycles, especially in the 1980s
- Pierburg carburetor, in VW, Audi
- ProForm Carburetors
- Rochester carburetor, USA (A General Motors subsidiary; also sold Weber/Magneti-Marelli carburetors under license) (Info)
- Solex carburetor
- SU carburetor widely used on British Commonwealth and European-designed vehicles, presently manufactured by Burlen Fuel Systems
- Tecumseh Products, small engines (e.g. lawn mowers, snow blowers)
- Villiers UK Motorcycle and small engines
- Walbro and Tillotson carburetors for small engines Info
- Weber carburetor, Italian, owned by Magneti-Marelli Distributed in the USA by: Weber North America
- Zenith UK Also produced the Zenith-Stromberg Carburetors
- Heldstab, Wayne, "The secret of the super mileage caburator : how they work, how to build them".
The Fish Carburetor: http://www.fireballroberts.com/Fish_Patents.htm
Dual Fuel Unit in 1975 Chevy Suburban runs on gasoline and alcohol: http://www.mikebrownsolutions.com/dual1.htm http://www.mikebrownsolutions.com/dual2.htm http://www.mikebrownsolutions.com/dual3.htm http://www.mikebrownsolutions.com/dual4.htm http://www.mikebrownsolutions.com/dual5.htm
- G.B. Рatent 11119 — Mixing chamber — Donát Bánki
- U.S. Patent 610040 — Carburetor — Henry Ford
- U.S. Patent 1750354 — Carburetor — Charles Nelson Pogue
- U.S. Patent 1938497 — Carburetor — Charles Nelson Pogue
- U.S. Patent 1997497 — Carburetor — Charles Nelson Pogue
- U.S. Patent 2026798 — Carburetor — Charles Nelson Pogue
- U.S. Patent 2982528 — Vapor fuel system — Robert S. Shelton
- U.S. Patent 4177779 — Fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine — Thomas H. W. W. Ogle
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